# IPS Study Guide

## Scientific Method:

1. Identify Problem
2. Gather Info
3. Form Hypothesis/Theory
4. Perform Experiment
5. Analyze Data
6. Conclusion

## Reactions:

• Solid A, Solid B, Red Liquid: gas produced, cold and hot, turns yellow
• Solid A and a Liquid: gets hot
• Solid B: and a Liquid: gets cold

Solid A and Solid B with a Liquid will produce a gas

To have the Liquid turn yellow you need Solid A, Solid B, and Red Liquid

## Ch 1 Vocabulary:

Observation- information obtained by the senses-often by direct measurement

Inference- a conclusion based upon known observations.

Hypothesis- a proposed solution to a scientific problem

Control Group- the group that is the standard for comparison in any experiment

Experimental Group- the group receiving the variable being tested

Control Factors- the variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group

Indicator- a substance used to show the presence of another substance.

Volume- the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases.

Volume Displacement Technique- quick and easy way to determined the volume of a solid or gas.

Mass- the amount of matter in a substance (true of solids, liquids, and gases)

Meniscus- the curved part of a liquid when in a container. Must read the bottom of the meniscus-at eye level-for proper measurement

## Post Lab:

*Baking Soda releases a gas when heated.

*Condensation forms inside the test tube towards the top:

• The top of the test tube is much cooler than the bottom
• When warm gas touches cooler surfaces it turns back to a liquid.

Indicator: Tea

Control Group: Unheated baking soda and tea

Experiment: Heated baking Soda

Control Factors: Amount of baking soda, amount of tea, type of tea, amount of stirring

After baking soda is heated it is no longer baking soda.

*The baking soda can not produce more condensation then itself.

*Baking Soda=Sodium Bicarbonate

## 1.2 Volume Notes

Unit of Measurement: cm 3 (cubic centimeters)

Volume: l x w x h (a x b x c)

Standard Unit of Length: meter (m)

*1 meter= 100 centimeters

*1 centimeter= .01 meters

Unit Cube: a mall cube 1 cm on each edge (1 cubic centimeter)

## Volume of Liquids:

Use a graduated cylinder to measure volume

*Always check the intervals on the scale

Units: milliliters (ml) or cm 3

1 ml =1 cm 3

## Single Pan Balance Notes

1. Check that the pan is clean

2. Always "zero" the balance

• Push all riders to zero
• Use adjustment knob if needed

3. NEVER switch pans

4. Pick up balance by the red bar

5. Return riders to zero when done

## Equations:

Find Sand Alone: Sand and Water - Water= Volume of Sand Alone

Fine Air Space: Dry Sand (air) - Sand Alone= Volume of Air

Fraction of Sand that is Air: is over of- air over sand

## Post Lab:

Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand?

It didn't matter how much sand you begin with the % of air space with the sand was all around 40%.

Need to pour the sand into the water.

If you pour the water into the sand the water will sit on top of the sand.

## Lab 1.8 The Sensitivity of a Balance

: Delta (change)

∆M: Change in mass

Sensitivity of the Balance: The margin of error (plus or minus) your balance has when massing an object (with 0.02)

## Pennies:

Before 1982: 95% copper, 5% zinc

After 1982: 2.5% copper, 97.5% zinc

In 1943 pennies were zinc plated steel

## Ch 2 Vocabulary:

Histogram- a bar graph that shows the number of times a value is represented for a large sampling group.

Conservation of Mass- in all changes, mass is exactly conserved provided nothing is added or allowed to escape. Must be a closed system. Not true for volume.

Laws of Nature- guessed generalizations based on many experiments can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitation of a law.

## Lab 2.1 The Mass of Dissolved Salt

Mi: Initial Mass

Mf: Final Mass

∆M: Change in Mass

Mf-Mi=∆M

Mi= mass of the bottle with the water, cap, and salt together but not mixed

Mf= mass of the bottle with the water, cap, and salt when all mixed

## Post Lab:

*When the salt dissolves into the water there was a decrease in mass.

*To get the salt back have the water evaporate and you will be left with the salt. The salt will not evaporate with the water.

## 2.2 Histograms

If data falls on a line you graph it in the column to the right.

## Post Lab:

Condensation: comes from the warm water vapor touching the cooler surface of the containner. It changes from a gas to a liquid. On the outside of the bottle

Water Vapor: much warmer than the surface of the bottle

When massing for the final mass need to wipe of condensation; if not it will add mass.

## Box Question:

Percent: is over of = x over 100

## Post Lab:

Gas is hard to work with because you can't see it and its hard contain.

## Law of Conservation of Mass

Closed system- anything that is shut (has a cap)

*In a closed system mass will remain constant regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system

Mass is always conserved however, in a nuclear reaction some mass is lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, adding mass to it. So the mass is not really "lost."

## Ch 3 Vocab:

Characteristic Properties-properties that show differences between substances. Ex: density, boiling point, solubility, melting point

Plateau- the flat portion of a graph. Indicates no change in the dependent variable (y axis)

Phase Diagram- a graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. Represents physical changes in the substances.

Barometric Pressure- air pressure generated by the atmosphere

Density-mass per unit volume of nay substance. Unit of measure is g/cm3

## 3.1 Notes

Property of Object: describes the object itself

Property of Substance: identify what the object is made out of

## Extra Question:

Will 2 objects that are made of the same substance and have the same volume have the same mass?

Yes because all the aluminum cylinders should have a mass of 2.7g

## Mass and Volume Notes

1. Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will gave the same mass, regardless of their shape.
2. The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles
3. Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will NOT have the same mass.

1 kg=1000g

## 3.3 Density

Mass over Volume equals Density

Density Units: g/cm 3 (grams per cubic centimeter)

*No matter how much you have of a substance it will always be the same density.

## Functions:

Function of ____________ goes on the x axis. (bottom)

## Post lab:

The Rock:

All the rocks have different densities because the rock id formed by many substances being compressed together. Different substances=Different densities. sedimentary rock

## Post Lab:

Magnesium Sulfate: Epsom Salt

• Dissolved in the liquids
• Liquid A has more Epsom salt in it.

## Post Lab:

∆M Change in Mass- Mass of the Gas

Vi- Volume of the bottle

∆V Change in Volume- Volume of the Gas

Mass is lost because the gas leaves the test tube and goes into the bottle (negative ∆M)

Gas is carbon dioxide because it comes from sodium bicarbonate

## 3.8 The Range of Densities

Find the mass of air in an empty room.

V= l x w x h (meters)

need to convert to cm

scientific notation

air density= M over Volume of room