Theology II

Aaron Janecek

Background Chapter- The Roman Empire

Much of the religion in Rome was imported from Greece. Most people were Pagan. Stoicism was influential to both Rome and Greece. The highest virtue was to be in accordance with right reason. Jews also had an influence on the development of Rome. They were monotheistic and believed they had been given a special role by God.

Chapter 1

After Jesus's crucifixion, he gave his church to Peter. He said Peter, you are the Rock on which I will build my church. He filled the Apostles with the Holy Spirit and sent them to spread his word. The Disciples waited for Jesus to return to them as they spread his word. Now, the Pope of the Church carries out the work of Peter and leads the Church.

Chapter 2

Early Christians believed in God and tried to carry out the ways of Jesus. Jesus was Baptized by St. John the Baptist in the river Jordon. It is said that you could see the heavens open up and the Holy Spirit come down upon them. It was most common for infants to be Baptized early rather than as adults. Agape was celebrated in the evenings to avoid impiety. People had to gather in private homes in order to celebrate the Mass.

Chapter 3

The early Christians faced persecution. They were know as followers of "The Way". Just as Jesus suffered for what he taught and preached, his followers were also persecuted. If someone became a Christian, they put their life at stake. St. Ignatius was one of the first Bishops of Antioch. He was martyred in the Coliseum as being fed to lions.

Chapter 4

There were many heresies in the Church. These were false teachings about God. Marconsim was a heresy founded by Marcion, he took ideas from the Gnostics and implemented them into Christianity. There were councils held to discuss the heresies and discuss what would happen. These were called Ecumenical Councils and were meetings of bishops and other leaders of the Church. St Jerome was mostly know for translating the Old Testament.

Chapter 5

The collapse took the Church by surprise. Rome fell sometime during the fifth century. Barbarians invaded with no regard for human rights. Pope St. Leo The Great convinced the Huns, a band of fierce warriors, not to invade Rome. Monasticism was a way of life characterized by prayer and self-denial. These people were known as monks and lived in seclusion from the world.

Chapter 7

The Great Schism divided the East and Western parts of the Church. This happened in the year of 1054. The dispute of crowning Charlemagne in the West was what caused the split. Michael Cerularius was a monk who lived in seclusion and had anti-Latin sentiments. The Photain Schism occurred from 857 to 867 and occurred because a man named Bardas was refused Comunion after he had an affair.

Chapter 9

The Crusades were a brutal series of wars. Islam spread all throughout the Holy Land. Pope Urban II called a council to meet about the Crusades. Religion was the main motivation for the Crusades. The first crusade took place from 1095 to 1099. This opened up trade from Asia. The Inquisition was a period of "cleansing" of heretical behavior in Spain. Inquisitors would try people of heresy but the secular officials who were in charge of punishment gave the Inquisition a bad rap. The Albigensian heresy was quashed by this manner and during the Reconquista the Inquisition was also used to clean out Spain of all the Muslims in Granada.

Chapter 10

The High Middle Ages was a time of development of culture. Scholasticism, the number of Universities, and Mendicant Orders were thriving at this time. St.Thomas Aquinas produced many theological works during this time. He was known as the 'dumb ox' because he was large and kept to himself.

Chapter 11

The Black Plague started in the east. It destroyed most of Europe and killed millions. The Christians stayed together through it and made it. There were many lost along the way but some survived. The hundred years war were many wars that lasted the span of 100 years. St. Joan of Arc led the French into battle and died for what she believed.
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Chapter 12

The Renaissance was a period of achievement in art and culture. Many great famous works were created in this time period. The Sistine Chapel, the Madonna and many others came from the Renaissance period.
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Chapter 13

The church began to sell indulgences angered Martin Luther, a German monk. He was completely against this. He started the Protestant reformation after breaking away from the Church. The English Reformation began by the King of England asking the Pope for an annulment on his marriage. The King was angry when he was denied it and started his own church of England.

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Chapter 15

The explorations opened up many doors for trade. But to the Church, the most important thing was evangelization. The trade and expansion of the Church allowed them to set up missionaries all around the world. A main spot for missionaries because there were many Christians already there.
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Chapter 16

Scientific discovery was the main achievement during the age of enlightenment. The scientific method was developed during this time. It is a way of solving problems by a 7 step process. This was a tumultuous time for the church. The church denied much of what was being discovered in this time.
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Chapter 19

The Bolsheviks took over Russia, implemented Marxist Communism, and voila Europe and the whole world has a new problem. The Communist regime there persecuted Christians, Eastern and Western alike.

Hitler came to power in 1933, one of his first acts was seeking an agreement with the Church on the issue of Church independence in Germany. The Church made the agreement to secure the freedom of German Catholics.

Pius XII was elected pope while being the Vatican secretary of state, in a time of turmoil and crisis of the Second World War. He led tireless efforts to fight the Nazis and secretly resisted and hid the Jews and victims of the War.

Two Saints of The Nazi Persecution are St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross and St. Maximilian Kolbe.

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Chapter 20

After the previous pope had died after only month in office, Pope St. John Paul II was elected as the unwilling pope but since he was called to by God he did his duty. John Paul was one of the most outstanding popes of all time and was the first non-Italian pope elected in over 450 years.

This Ecumenical Council was convened to update the Church for the Modern World. Many doctrines made at Vatican Council two are still being released today and implemented such as the new translation for our creed and parts of the Mass. Four Constitutions were written there: The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.

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Chapter 21

In 1839, Pope Gregory XVI condemned the slave trade across the world. However, in America the bishops said little. Once most were emancipated many became Catholics and were all welcome into the Church.

The United States, as it was a hotbed for immigration, was a landing place for Catholics from Europe. Many Spaniards came to bring the faith to what is now Mexico and Florida. To Juan Diego, the Aztec, Mother Mary appeared and helped establish a church at Guadalupe.

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