Scarlet and Yellow Fever

The assigned bacterial and viral infection by Sarah Schaal

Scarlet Fever

Basic Info

Scientific name: it can go by Scarlatina, but the scientific genus and species name is Streptococcus pyogenes


Taxonomy levels:

Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Streptococcaceae Genus: Streptococcus Species: pyogenes.


Shape of bacteria: cocci


This bacteria is gram positive because it has more peptidoglycan in its' cell wall


Scarlet Fever can be transmitted through a sneeze or a cough, breathing it in or contracting it through an open wound. The disease is more likely to transmit in crowded places in the spring and fall, especially through ages 5-15.


When this disease enters your body, your blood vessels dilate and your blood pressure increases, and the neutrophils in your tissues or cells grow or subtract from each other. But when neutrophils ingest bacteria into the phagocytes, bacteria resists neutrophilic enzymes and multiply inside the white blood cell. Your dead tissues then liquefy when toxins are released, after the death of the neutrophil.


Symptoms: a rash over your neck and chest, later spreading all over your body

A sore throat, fever, abdominal pain, chills, vomiting, and a swollen tongue.

Scarlet Fever can also evolve from Strep Throat.


Mortality rates are less than 1% of those who develop the disease.


Infection rates: as of 2013, in Texas there were reported 333 cases of Scarlet Fever. Recently in England, there has been a high of 900 infections.


Treatment options: If you go to the doctor, you can get antibiotics. Make sure you keep washing your hands as to not get anybody else sick and help your body heal faster.

Yellow Fever

Identification of Virus

The Yellow Fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease.


This virus has many unique structural features, such as the envelope protein and viral tegument.


The bacteria can only spread through mosquitos, and can transmit to humans and monkeys, although the bacteria cannot be transferred between two humans. The virus incubates in the body for about half a week, acting quickly, and then you can start to see signs.


Symptoms include fever, muscle pain, headaches, dizziness, nausea/throwing up, and sensitivity to light. Symptoms of the more serious toxic phase are jaundice, abdominal pain and vomiting, bleeding from your nose, eyes, and mouth, liver and kidney failure, brain dysfunction, and slowed heart rate.


The disease is high in Central/South America, as well as Africa, and can only spread if a person travels from one of those countries to the US. Half of those who develop the toxic phase die.


There is a very strong prevention against Yellow fever, and if you are traveling to South America or Africa, most places will require you to get the vaccine, and get tested before you re-enter. Although there is no specific treatment if you do develop the disease.

Analysis Questions

1. My bacteria cell is a prokaryote because it has no nucleus and also has a flagellum.


3. This bacteria can move on its own, they have dna, they are a cell, they can reproduce, and adapt/evolve. Viruses, while having dna and the ability to adapt, they can only reproduce while connected to another living cell, and can't survive on it's own.


2.:

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Summary

Yellow fever is much different, and much more dangerous than Scarlet fever. While the Scarlet fever has treatment options, the only thing you can do for Yellow fever is preventative measures, but nothing once you've gotten sick. You have to let your body figure out how to fight against the disease, which gives you a big possibility of death. You also don't develop many signs the first few days of contracting the Yellow fever. When you do see symptoms, they are the same symptoms of many other diseases and don't seem like much, especially since they go away so quickly. The symptoms of both the Scarlet fever and the Yellow fever are very unpleasant, until you get to the toxic stage of Yellow Fever, in which you have a great possibility to die from the symptoms (kidney failure, developing a coma).

Citations

Yellow Fever

"Yellow Fever." World Health Organization. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/>.

Staff, By Mayo Clinic. "Yellow Fever." Symptoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/yellow-fever/basics/symptoms/con-20032263>.

N.p., n.d. Web. <https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Yellow_fever_virus>.

scarlet fever

"Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.cdc.gov/features/scarletfever/>.


"Streptococcus Pyogenes and Streptococcal Disease." Streptococcus Pyogenes and Streptococcal Disease. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://textbookofbacteriology.net/streptococcus.html>.


"Scarlet Fever Making a Comeback." UQ News. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2015/11/scarlet-fever-making-comeback>.


"Scarlet Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Scarlet Fever Prognosis - EMedicineHealth." EMedicineHealth. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/scarlet_fever/page10_em.htm>.


Reporter, Daily Mail. "Scarlet Fever at Record High with Nearly 900 Cases of the Illness in Just a Week." Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 04 Apr. 2014. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2597431/Scarlet-fever-record-high-nearly-900-cases-illness-just-week.html>.


@patient. "Scarlet Fever. What Is Scarlet Fever? Scarlet Fever Symptoms and Treatment | Patient." Patient. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://patient.info/health/scarlet-fever-leaflet>.


"Medical Microbiology @ DigitalProteus.com." Medical Microbiology @ DigitalProteus.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://micro.digitalproteus.com/morphology2.php>.