Dick and Carey Model

Walter Dick, Lou Carey, and James Carey (1978)


The Dick and Carey model of Instructional Design is a prescriptive systems view of instruction that focuses on the interrelationship between context, content, learning, and instruction as a whole instead of as individual components of instruction. The Dick and Carey model utilizes a 10 step process. Unlike other models that require steps to be completed prior to beginning another, the Dick and Carey ID model requires that steps be completed parallel to each other and repeated while working towards the end goals.
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10 Step Process

  1. Identify Instructional Goals
  2. Conduct Instructional Analysis (analyze performance gap between where students are at entry and where they need to be based on instructional goals)
  3. Identify Entry Behaviors (skills, experience, motivation levels of learners so that instruction can include scaffolding from the entry level of students)
  4. Write Performance Objectives
  5. Develop Assessment Instruments
  6. Develop Instructional Strategy
  7. Develop and Select Instructional Materials
  8. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation
  9. Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation
  10. Revise Instruction

Context for Use

The Dick and Carey ID model is best suited for schools and other educational environments. It may not be as effective in a corporate learning environment because it does not emphasize the steps necessary for course maintenance in a LMS.

Advantages/ Disadvantages


  • Though best suited in educational/school settings, it can be applied to any context
  • Been around a long time and can be adjusted to accommodate new technology and learning/ instructional theories
  • Appropriate for novice Instructional Designers


  • Assumes that learning is predictable
  • Though it utilizes a non-linear instructional design model, the steps indicate that learning is linear and it is not
  • Based on the premise that every component is essential, and therefore none can be skipped