class try's to figure out Emilyl's disease
could Emily have sickle cell anemia?
What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia
The goals of treating sickle cell disease are to prevent or relieve pain; prevent infections, organ damage, and strokes; treat anemia; and control complications.
Some doctors and clinics specialize in treating people who have sickle cell disease. Hematologists specialize in treating adults and children who have blood diseases and disorders.
Mild pain is often treated with over-the-counter medicine and heating pads. Severe pain may need to be treated in a hospital. The usual treatments for acute (short-term) pain crises are fluids and pain-controlling medicines. Fluids help prevent dehydration, a condition in which the body doesn't have enough fluids. Fluids are given either by mouth or through a vein.
Common medicines used to treat pain crises include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and narcotics. Treatment for mild to moderate pain usually begins with NSAIDs or acetaminophen. If pain continues, a narcotic may be needed. Moderate to severe pain is often treated with narcotics. The narcotic may be used alone or with NSAIDs or acetaminophen.
Those with more severe sickle cell anemia may benefit from daily administration of a medicine called hydroxyurea. This medicine may help reduce the number of painful crises. Hydroxyurea is used to prevent painful crises, not to treat them when they occur.
Bacterial infections can be a major complication of sickle cell disease, but often they can be prevented or treated. If a child who has sickle cell disease shows early signs of an infection, such as a fever, difficulty breathing, or localized bone pain, treatment should be given right away.
To prevent infections in babies and young children, treatments include:
- Daily doses of penicillin. Treatment may begin as early as 2 months of age and continue until the child is at least 5 years old.
- All routine vaccinations (including a yearly flu shot), plus vaccination(s) against streptococcus pneumonia.
Adults who have sickle cell disease should also receive flu shots every year and get vaccinated against pneumococcal infections. Both adults and children are at risk for a variety of infections, such as pneumonia and bone infections. They should be examined whenever they experience fevers, since early diagnosis and treatment result in better outcomes.
Complications from sickle cell disease can include gallstones, lung crises (acute chest syndrome), pulmonary hypertension, stroke, leg ulcers that don't heal, and eye damage.
Blood transfusions are commonly used to treat worsening anemia and sickle cell complications. Most patients with sickle cell disease have at least occasional blood transfusions. Patients with severe complications–such as stroke and acute chest syndrome–may require months or years of regular transfusions every three to four weeks to prevent ongoing damage.
Hydroxyurea treatment may be helpful in reducing crises and the need for transfusions.
People with sickle cell disease should have regular checkups to detect eye damage. And a simple ultrasound test of the head can identify children at high risk for strokes.