The Middle Ages:Those Who Conquered
Joan of Arc; King John; William the Conquerer
Picture: Joan of Arc's execution by being burned at stake.
Joan Of Arc: Biological Info
Joan, also called Jeanne La Pucelle. Born 1412; Died in 1431 at age 19. Also called "Maid of Orleans."Born in Domremy-la-Pucelle. French nationality. Modern day french city of Rouen, France.Joan was a peasant who was said to not "know A from B." Joan claimed that she said she saw magical visions from God.
Joan Of Arc: Importance
She identified herself with prophecies about a virigin whow would save France. People questioned her powers wondering if they had came from God or the Devil? Vaucoulers refused to endorse her mission until she was exorcised.Joan joined the French army under King Charles command. She and her soldiers marched into Orleans and became a symbol of motivation to join her cause. Her prescence became a morale. Eventually driven by her voices she disobeyed the king and continued to fight. Her attack on Paris failed and Joan was captured in May 1430. Charles did not make any effort to plead or ransom for her innocence.
Joan Of Arc: Memeorable Moments
At some point she began hearing 3 voices who she identified as the Saints Catherine or Alexandria and Margaret of Antioch, both known for heroic virginity. And the third voice was Archangel Micheal; Protector of the French Royal Family.The English discredited her and identified her as a witch. Joan's trial lasted a week, as she could not call for witnesses or have coubnsel. She also had no religious order to speak for her. Joan told her interrogators that she was sent by God and warned they would condemn her at a great risk. After several weeks of questioning Joan agreed that the voices did not exist and she would wear a women's dress.
Picture: Artistic Drawing/Depiction of King John.
King John: Biological Info
King John was born in England on December 24, 1167. He died in Newark England on October 19, 1216. King John is the youngest son of Henry ll. he was called John Lackland since his father did not at first grant him an appanage on the Continent.
King John: Importance
John's marriage in 1200 to Isabella of Angoulême, who was betrothed to Hugh of Lusignan, led to a judicial action initiated by the Lusignans. This action resulted in open warfare between John and his feudal overlord (Philip) and John's ultimate forfeiture and loss of Normandy as well as of the Angevin possessions on the Continent (roughly Brittany, the Loire country, and Aquitaine) to the French Crown. A disputed election to Canterbury was settled in Rome by Pope Innocent lll, who chose Stephen Langton for the see. This led to a quarrel between Innocent and John when the King refused to recognize Langton.
King John: Memorable Moments
In June 1215 a considerable number of barons, with the moral support of Langton, met the King in arms at Runnymede and exacted his agreement to Magna Carta, which severely limited his exercise of the royal authority and placed the Crown under the control of an oligarchic committee of his vassals. In the course of the civil war precipitated by this maneuver and the French invasion that followed in its wake, King John died of a surfeit of peaches, leaving the throne and the confusion to his young son, King Henry lll of England.
William The Conqueror
Picture: Artistic Drawing/Depiction of William the Conqueror.
William The Conqueror: Biological Info
William the Conqueror was born in 1027, in Falaise, France. William the Conqueror died on September 09, 1087 in Rouen, France. William I, better known as William the Conqueror, was an illegitimate child who grew up to become one of the most powerful men in Western Europe.
William The Conqueror: Importance
The victory of William and the Normans forever changed the character of England. He instituted new laws and greatly increased the power of English kings over noblemen. He also initiated a new line of English royalty, and even today the British royal house is distantly related to William. William survived a rebellion in 1046, when he was about nineteen, and proved his abilities as a leader; therefore King Henry I of France asked for his help in a 1051 campaign.
William The Conqueror: Memorable Moments
William assumed power in Normandy, and shortly after the battle promulgated the "Truce of God" throughout his duchy, in an effort to limit warfare and violence by restricting the days of the year on which fighting was permitted. The Battle of Val-ès-Dunes marked a turning point in William's control of the duchy. The period from 1047 to 1054 saw almost continuous warfare, with lesser crises continuing until 1060. However, six years later William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the "Battle of Hastings" on 14 October 1066. William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, and was buried in Caen.
✞ Joan of Arc ✞ 1412-1431