NPTKL Member (Jeremy Cleark)
Wilhelm Wundt 2.0
- Wilhelm Wundt opened the institute for experimental psychology at the university of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Wundt is often regarded as the father of psychology.
- Wundt was the important because he separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control. His background was in physiology and this was reflected in the topics with which the institute was concerned such as the study of reaction times and sensory and attention. also argued the conscious mental states could be scientifically studied using introspection.
Edward Bradford Titchener
- Edward Titchener established the psychological school of thought known as structuralism. Titchener believed that by systematically defining and categorizing the elements of ther mind, researchers could understand the structure of the mental processes. While he is often described as an apostle of Wundt's and Titchener's ideal differed from those of his mentor.
- He utilized Wundt's method of introspection, but under much more stringent guidelines. he was only interested in things that existed in the consciousness, so things such as instincts or the unconscious were of no interest to him. Introspection was a technique that relies on self- observation.
William James His Life and Philosophy
- William James wrote considerably one the concept of pragmatism, According to pragmatism, the truth of an area can never be proven. James proposed we instead focus on what he called the "cash value,"or usefulness of an idea. James opposed the structuralist focus on and breaking down mental events to the smallest elements.
- James focused on the wholeness of an event , taking into the impact of the environment on behavior. His theory of emotion proposes that an event triggers a physiological reaction, which we then interpret. According to this theory , emotions are caused by our interpretations of these physiological reactions.
- wrote over a hundred professional papers of topics in psychology and philosophy. In addition to being the first woman president of the American Psychological Association, Calkins also served as president of the American Philosophical Association in 1918. Among her major contributions to psychology are the invention of the paired association technique and her work in self-psychology.
- Despite Mary Whiton Calkins contributions, Harvard maintains its refusal to grant the degree she earned and her influence on psychology is often overlooked by both scholars and students.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Mary Floy Washburn
- spent her career teaching at Vassar where she published 134 articles and 66 book reviews/notices. She was instrumental in the maturation of psychological endeavors as a scholarly and scientific endeavor. Her most commonly known publication. The animal mind, became the first textbook in comparative psychology that compiled the experimental studies of animal behavior and mentality.
- Washburn maintained that psychology is about studying both behavior and consciousness and research should both describe and explain by obtaining and interpreting facts. Professionally she held several important positions throughout her career. Including APA president in 1921, member of APA council psychology representative to the national research council division of psychology and Anthropology along with many others.
John B Watson & Rosalie Rayner
- Both known for the little Albert experiment. In this famous experiment conducted in the 20s by behaviorist John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner, an infant was exposed to a white rat to which he intially exhibited no fear. The researchers then presented the rat accompanied by a loud clanging noise.
- After repeated pairings , the child began to cry when the rat alone was presented. This fear was even generalized to objects that resembled the rat such as fluffy white toys. As the story goes, the experiment ended Little Albert and his mother moved before the boy was ever deconditioned.
The Little Albert Experiment
B. F. Skinner
- Skinner is regarded as the father of operant conditoning but his work was based on Thordike's (1905) law of effect. He introduced a new term into the law of effect- reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out - or be extinguished
- Skinner(1948) studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a "Skinner Box" which was similar to Thorndike's puzzle box. B.F. Skinner coined the term operant conditioning ; it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desire response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.
- Freud's work and theories helped shape our views of childhood, personality, memory, sexuality and therapy . Other major thinkers have contributed work that grew out Freud's legacy. While others developed new theories out of the oppostion to his ideas. His theories have been the subject of considerable controversy, and debate, his impact on psychology, therapy, and culture is undeniable. His theories were enormously influential but subject to be criticism.
- His ideas have become the fabric of our culture with terms such as "Freudian Slip," "repression and denial" appearing regularly in everyday language. Also his ideas had such a strong impact on psychology that an entire school of thought emerged from his work. While it was eventually replaced by the rise of behaviorism, psychoanalysis had a lasting impact on both psychology and psychotherapy
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts: Motivation, Personality and Development
Questions and Answers
- What was the theory of Wilhelm Wundt ? Structuralism is a theory that suggests that all experiences can be broken down into two categories: Objective and Subjective.
- What did Wilhelm Wundt Contribute to Psychology? Wilhelm Wundt is best known for Structuralism, introspection and the establishment of the first psychology lab. He mad psychology a field of its own.
- What research did Wilhelm Wundt use? Wilhelm Wundt, the father of modern psychology and structuralism was the first who attempted to measure mental processes.
- What year did he establish experimental psychology? 1920
- Wilhelm Wundt is generally acknowledged as the "father of psychology". Why? he is pretty much started that branch by starting research labs for psychological research