The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Era
The Civil Rights Movement transformed American democracy, it was a model for other groups; women, students, gays, and so on. Not much later in history, other groups spoke up and fought for their rights as well. Despite the civil rights gains, discrimination remained a significant factor in American life.
Tactics & Strategies
An effective nonviolent protest was the Birmingham Campaign, in 1963. The tactics that were used for this protest were marches and sit-ins to end segregation in public businesses. After these tactics were used many segregation signs came down and more public places were open to all races.
Another successful tactic was boycotts. A well known boycott was The Montgomery Bus Boycott, a protest campaign against racial segregation on the public transit system in Montgomery, Alabama. The protest was held in 1955, many blacks stopped taking buses to work which caused the transit system to lose money. After a little over a year of participating in this boycott, a federal court found that the laws in Alabama requiring segregated buses was unconstitutional.
The Birmingham Campaign
In this photo, a 17-year-old civil rights demonstrator is being attacked by a police dog. This is an example of police brutality during the Birmingham Campaign, in 1963. (Photograph by Bill Hudson)
The leader of Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee, John Lewis is being beaten by a state trooper. He was attempting to march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
This photograph was taken during the Selma-to-Montgomery march, in 1963. (Photograph by James Karales)