Paraphilic Disorders

By: Amanda Bass

What are Paraphilic Disorders?

A paraphilic disorder is a disorder characterized by atypical sexual activity that involves one of the following:

  • nonhuman objects
  • non-consenting adults
  • the suffering of humiliation of oneself or ones partner or children


(Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014)

Types of Paraphilic Disorders...

  • Fetishistic Disorder: obsessed with nonliving objects or non-genital (ex: armpits, feet, undergarments ect.)
  • Transvestic Disorder: Cross-dressing
  • Sexual Sadism Disorder: Acts involving physical and psychological suffering of another person
  • Sexual Masochism Disorder: Acts of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
  • Voyeuristic Disorder: Act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, in the process of undressing, or engaged in sexual behavior
  • Exhibitionistic Disorder: Exposure to one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger
  • Frotteuristic Disorder: Touching and rubbing against a non-consenting person
  • Pedophilic Disorder: Sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children


(Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014)

Possible Causes...

Behavioral Theories:

The behavioral therapists try to explain it as being due to an initial classical pairing of intense early sexual arousal with a particular stimulus. It reinforces the association between the stimulus and sexual arousal. Along with early exposure it could be the child's environment and cultural influences that the child or person has these issues.


Cognitive Theories:

These theories could reflect what they have learned from their parents in order to develop into this disorder. There also could have been hormonal imbalances and brain dysfunctions in order to cause them to think the way that they do.



(Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014)

Treatment Options...

I know you might be thinking what can I do to stop or at least relieve myself of this problem? Well there is help on the way. Some of the major forms of treatment may be a little extreme such as castration or even incarceration. Well these might help a little bit but it doesn't always solve the problem. There are other ways that you can do to help which could be:


  1. Antiandrogen Medication which helps suppress the production of testosterone which then decreases the sex drive.
  2. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) can help reduce the sex drive and the paraphilic behavior
  3. Aversion Therapy could help extinguish sexual responses to objects or situations a person with a paraphilia that is arousing
  4. Cognitive Interventions and behavioral interventions help people to learn more socially appropriate ways to approach and interact people that they find attractive.


(Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014)

Myths...

  • Paraphilia's are not traditional mental illnesses, therefore they can’t be reasons for commitment.
  • Allowing sexual predator commitment further stigmatizes mental illness, and the public will confuse mental patients with paraphilics.
  • Commitment is for treatment, and we can’t treat people with paraphilia's.


(Reid, 1998)

How to Overcome the Myths...

  • Paraphilia's are not traditional mental illnesses, therefore they can’t be reasons for commitment.

- Paraphilia's are characterized for their antisocial and criminal behaviors but the state cannot create a new category for "commitment."

  • Allowing sexual predator commitment further stigmatizes mental illness, and the public will confuse mental patients with paraphilics.

-There are ways for the society to reconnect with patients with this disorder if one goes through the proper treatment processes.

  • Commitment is for treatment, and we can’t treat people with paraphilia's.

- There are many treatments available for people who are struggling with this disorder but it is all of a matter of whether or not the individual wants to pursue treatment.


(Reid, 1998)

Finding a Therapist...

Sexuality Counselor Requirements:

  1. A minimum of a Bachelor’s degree plus three years of professional counseling experience. A minimum of one thousand (1,000) hours of professional sexuality counseling experience (cumulative), in not under two (2) years and not over five (5) years prior to certification, will be documented by the applicant.
  2. The applicant shall have completed a minimum of providing one hundred (100) hours of supervised sexuality counseling.
  3. The applicant shall have completed a minimum of thirty (30) hours of supervision with an AASECT Certified Sexuality Counselor Supervisor or an AASECT Certified Sex Therapist Supervisor. Minimum duration of supervision shall be twelve (12) to eighteen (18) months. Total number of supervision hours that will count towards certification will not exceed six (6) hours per month.
  4. Upon approval from the Sexuality Counselor Certification Committee, the successful applicant will receive a certificate in recognition of having met AASECT requirements for certification in the area of Sexuality Counseling. This certificate will be subject to renewal every three (3) years, with renewals following in three (3) year increments.


Sex Therapist:

  1. Master's degree plus two years of post-degree clinical experience
  2. The applicant will hold a valid state regulatory license or certificate for the state in which the applicant practices, in one of the following disciplines: psychology, medicine, social work, counseling, nursing, or marriage and family therapy.
  3. The applicant will have participated in a minimum of ten (10) clock hours of structured group experience consisting of a process-oriented exploration of the applicant's own feelings, attitudes, values, and beliefs regarding human sexuality and sexual behavior.
  4. The applicant shall have completed a minimum of fifty (50) hours of supervision with an AASECT Certified Supervisor of Sex Therapy.


(AASECT, 2015)

References...

AASECT. (2015). AASECT Requirements for Sex Therapist and Sex Counselor Certification | AASECT:: American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists. Retrieved from https://www.aasect.org/certification/aasect-requirements-sex-therapist-certification

Huffington Post. (2013, October 9). HuffPost Live [Video file]. Retrieved from http://live.huffingtonpost.com/r/segment/sexual-deviancy-perv-paraphilia-jesse-bering-fetish-sex-education/5252d635fe344468210002f7

Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2014). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Reid, W. (1998, July). Myths About Violent Sexual Predators and All That Pesky Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.reidpsychiatry.com/columns/Reid07-98.pdf