Hitler and Nazi Germany

By: Kameron Edwards, Brandan Johnson, Riley Chron

Hitler and His Political Views

Adolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889.

He failed secondary school and moved to Vienna to become an artist at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts... he was rejected by the academy.

In Vienna he developed his basic ideas. Racism was at the hearts of these ideas particularly against the Jews (anti-Semitism). Hitler was also an extreme nationalist who understood how to use propaganda (media) to invoke terror.

Hitler served on the western front of WWl for 4 years. Hitler decided to enter politics in 1919 and joined tu3 German Worker's Party. In 1921 Hitler had taken control of the party and renamed it the National Socialist Workers' Party (NSDAP) or Nazi for short.

Within 2 years of Hitler's takeover the party had grown to 55, 000 members.

Hitler staged an armed uprising against the German government in Munich. This uprising happened in November of 1923. This uprising is called the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler was quickly beaten and sentenced to prison.

While in prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf or "my struggle" , this is an account of the basic ideas of his movement.

Hitler believed that superior nations had the right to Lebensraum or "living space".

Rise of Nazism

After A defeat in WWI, Germany became a democracy. The Nazi party, controlled by Adolf Hitler, received more and more votes each election, promising to restore honor throughout Germany. As they gained more power they took down the democratic system with violence and force. In 1932, Hitler is named as Reich Chancellor and the Nazi party is the most popular political party in Germany. Hitler then passed a law that took civil rights and political freedoms from the people. By March the Nazis have the power to rule without parliament and Germany becomes a dictatorship
Rise of the Nazis

Vicory of Nazism

Once Hitler became chancellor, the elites of Germany constantly looked to him for leadership, and with his new government he and the Nazi party had complete control over the country. The Enabling Act was passed that formally ended democracy on Germany and and legally gave Hitler the title of dictator. This meant he no longer needed to consult others to make a decision, such as President Hindenburg. While Germany’s economy was at it’s lowest, Hitler took that chance and manipulated his way up to power. He promised jobs opportunities that were never kept. But by giving these fake promises, the people quickly followed Hitler and his trusted him without question.

The Nazi State 1933-1939

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The State and Terror

Nazi Germany was the location of almost constant personal and institutional conflict which resulted in administrative chaos. Struggle was a basic feature of relationships within the party, state, and between the party and state. Hitler was the absolute ruler and ultimate decision maker. For the people who needed more coercion than the rest, the Nazi totalitarian state used terror and repression. The SS or “Guard Squadrons” were the force used for maintaining order but were initially Hitlers personal body guards. Under the direction of Heinrich Himmler, the SS became the regular police force and the secret police. They were based on two principles, terror and ideology. They took terror and used it in the forms of: secret police, criminal police, concentration camps, and later, execution squads and death camps.

Economic Policies

Hitler used a massive rearmament program as the key to solving the unemployment problem. He also used public work projects and grants to private construction firms to put people back to work and end the depression. Unemployment had reached 6 million people in 1932, but with Hitler coming to power, it dropped to 2.6 million in 1934 and less than 500,000 in 1937. The regime claimed full credit for solving the economic problems. The regime’s part in helping solve these issues is what helped people accept Hitler coming to power.
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Spectacles and Organizations

Mass demonstrations and spectacles were used to make german people an instrument of Hitler’s policies. These meetings had great appeal, especially the Nuremberg party rallies. Eventually, mass enthusiasm and excitement was evoked. The Nazi totalitarian state also brought Catholic and Protestant churches, primary and secondary schools, and universities under their control.Nazi professional organizations and leagues were formed for lawyers, women, doctors, farmers, teachers, and civil servants. Also, youth organizations taught Nazi ideals.

Woman and Nazism

As the Nazi’s role grew in Germany, so did the german women’s. Hitler saw women as the partner that should stay at home and birth strong, healthy, Aryan children. He believed that women shouldn’t work or do hard labor but instead be a stay-at-home mother. After democracy was replaced, schools started to teach girls that it was good to marry young and to manage the household for their husbands. Hitler wanted to bring the german population up by telling women they should have four children with a “racially pure” father. He actually encouraged women to have children even if they weren’t married, which during this time,was looked upon as immoral.

Anti-Semitic Policies

The Nuremberg laws were two laws excluding Jews from German life, the first law Reichsburgergesetz (Law of the Reich Citizen) deprives Jews from German citizenship. The second law Gesetz zum Schutze des Deutschen Blutes und der Deutschen Ehre ( Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor) forbid the sexual relations and marriage between German Blood and Jews. It also forbid the employment of Jewish maids. The law does not permit Jews to even raise the German flag. Because of the law Jews could not hold public office, vote, considered citizens of the Reich. The laws also stated that Jews must wear a yellow star of david with a red J (short for Jude). There were also stores and other public places that had “No Jews allowed” signs.

The Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) starting on November 9th German citizens target Synagogues, Jewish Stores, and other places Jewish people went to. Every place Jewish families occupied were burned.

Essential Questions

EQ #1

What did Hitler do to rise to power?

EQ #2

How was Hitler able to manipulate the minds of the citizens to believe in his cause?