for Early Elementary Students
Have you thought about...?
Common Reading Comprehension Strategies
Self-questioning: Forming questions during the reading process that guide the reading
Making Connections: Connecting the text to self, others, or other text
Vocabulary: Knowing vocabulary and how words work
Monitoring: Checking to see if the text makes sense
Summarizing: Putting it all together
Evaluating: Analyzing and making judgements about the topic and the form
Students who read more are more successful at reading comprehension. Young students who comprehend successfully, are inspired to read more often!
Reading Instruction Framework
2. Gradual Release of Responsibility from Teacher to Student
3. Teach Declarative, Procedural, and Conditional Knowledge
Interventions and Strategies to Assist Young Learners:
- Wordless Picture Books
- Reciprocal Teaching for Primary Grades
- Comprehension Process Motions
- Literature Webbing
- Story Mapping
- Five-finger Retell
- Narrative AND expository texts are great!
- Students need challenging text to practice comprehension techniques.
- They need to practice inferring and finding meaning...not just recall.
- Decontextualized language is tricky!
- Ask smart questions to get students thinking.
- Don't let pictures and background knowledge get them off track. Use them appropriately. Redirect and refocus.
- Take advantage of opportunities to highlight rich vocabulary in stories.
- Use skilled questioning to probe, repeat, and reword.
References for Early Elementary Comprehension Instruction
Barnes, A., Kim, Y., & Phillips, B. (2014). The relations of proper character introduction to
narrative quality and listening comprehension for young children from high poverty
schools. Reading & Writing, 27(7), 1189-1205. doi:10.1007/s11145-013-9481-0
Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2001). Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud
experiences for young children. (cover story). The Reading Teacher, 55(1), 10. Retrieved
from: thtp://eds.b.ebscohost.com.jproxy.lib.ecu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?sid= a7392757-99e1-409c-bc82-cf0901f863dc%40sessionmgr103&vid =36&hid=111
Block, C. C., Parris, S. R., & Whiteley, C. S. (2008). CPMs: A kinesthetic comprehension
Strategy. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), 460-470. DOI:10.1598/RT.61.6.3
Cartwright, K. B., Marshall, T. R., & Wray, E. (2016). A longitudinal study of the role of reading
motivation in primary students’ reading comprehension: Implications for a less simple
view of reading. Reading Psychology, 37(1), 55-91. doi:10.1080/02702711.2014.991481
Dougherty Stahl, K. A. (2014). Fostering inference generation with emergent and novice
readers. The Reading Teacher, 67(5), 384–388. doi:10.1002/trtr.1230
Dougherty Stahl, K. A. (2004). Proof, practice, and promise: Comprehension strategy instruction
in the primary grades. The Reading Teacher, 57(7), 598-609. issn: 0034-0561 Retrieved
Foley, L. S. (2011). Exploring k-3 teachers' implementation of comprehension strategy
instruction (csi) using expectancy-value theory. Literacy Research and Instruction, 50(3),
195-215. doi: 10.1080/19388071.2010.505680
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic
Kraemer. L., McCabe, P., & Sinatra, R. (2012). The effects of read-alouds of expository text on
first graders' listening comprehension and book choice. Literacy Research & Instruction,
51(2), 165-178. doi:10.1080/19388071.2011.557471
McLaughlin, M., & Allen, M. B. (2009). Guided comprehension in grades 3-8. Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.
McLaughlin, M. (2012). Reading comprehension: What every teacher needs to know. Reading
Teacher, 65(7), 432-440. doi:10.1002/TRTR.01064
Pilonieta, P., & Medina, A. L. (2009). Reciprocal teaching for the primary grades: “We can do it,
too!” The Reading Teacher, 63(2), 120–129. doi:10.1598/RT.63.2.3
Potocki, A., Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2013). Narrative comprehension skills in 5-Year-old
children: Correlational analysis and comprehender profiles. Journal Of Educational
Research, 106(1), 14-26. doi:10.1080/00220671.2012.667013
Strasser, K., & del Río, F. (2014). The role of comprehension monitoring, theory of mind, and
vocabulary depth in predicting story comprehension and recall of kindergarten children.
Reading Research Quarterly, 49(2), 169. doi: 10.1002/rrq.68
Stutz, F., Schaffner, E., & Schiefele, U. (2015). Relations among reading motivation, reading
amount, and reading comprehension in the early elementary grades. Learning &
Individual Differences, 45101-113. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2015.11.022