Struggles with France/Colonies

History AS - Unit 2

THE WARS

William's War - the War of the League of Augsburg (1689 - 97)

The Glorious Revolution brought 25 years of war for both England and other colonies


1689: England joined European Coalition against King Louis XIV (of France) - war began

1690: war spread to North America - border raids on both sides

French forces demolished Iroquois land/people --> the Iroquois bore a heavy load of the havoc

1700: 1/4 Iroquois warriors - killed, taken prisoner or fled to Canada; population declined by 20%

1701: Iroquois agreed to remain neutral in future Anglo - French wars - regained control of life/lands - rebuilt population

Queen Anne's War - the War of Spanish Succession (1702 - 13)

1702: New European war - England vs. France + Spain -->

Anglo-Americans became aware of military weakness

French + Indian raiders (from Canada) destroyed New England

Spanish invaded Southern Carolina

1706: English forces --> control of Hudson Bay region, Newfoundland + Acadia

1713: peace signed --> Britain to keep these lands

--> French + India held control of their interior

The French-Indian War - the Seven Years' War (1756 - 63)

  • Britain declared war on France - became a worldwide conflict; fighting in Europe, West Indies, Africa, India + North America
  • Loudon's tactics helped better prepare troops for warfare suited to North America/disciplined them - also built roads/centralised supply lines
  • originally went downhill for Britain but success slowly increased when William Pitt was returned to power in 1757; sent 25, 000 troops to America PLUS 25, 000 American colonists - paid well to support British forces
  • Frederick the Great of Prussia - preoccupied French in Europe
  • 1758 - British forces captured Louisburg (stopped French from being able to transport supplies - control of St Lawrence river)
  • took Fort Frontenac (cut link between Canada and Mississippi valley) - Britain gained many goods + £800, 000 - cut French off from Western forts
  • 1759 - the year of victories; capture of Guadaloupe, three-pronged attack on Canada, smashed French fleet at Quiberon Bay
  • George III wanted peace (Pitt wanted to continue fighting) - created 'Peace of Paris' terms (1763)
  • 1761: Pitt resigned
  • 1762: Bute replaced Pitt

Peace of Paris (1763)

  • Britain:
  • Canada and all French possessions east of the Mississippi
  • most of France's West Indian islands
  • Florida
  • France:
  • Guadeloupe + Martinique
  • Spain:
  • Philippines and Cuba to Spain

William Pitt

  • introduced new generals e.g. Wolfe --> new ideas/tactics (very successful)
  • change British tactics in linear warfare - could shoot more people at once
  • paid colonists for their troops wage and upkeep (25, 000 extra colonial troops)
  • provincial soldiers could retain their rank when they joined with the regular troops
  • British troops were driven by nationalistic passion/imperialistic ambition - hated French + Spanish
  • BUT British government were sick of Pitt's war hunger




Britain + Colonies

Weakening Relationship

COLONIES

  • too much independence - new identities/greater popularity
  • economic strength increasing - pulling colonies together
  • mercantilism gets out of hand - smuggling
  • growth of population; spread of ideas/harder to control
  • thought British troops were haughty, incompetent, arrogant
  • didn't get rewards: pro-Indian at army, should have had land, enforced government on Quebec etc - raised suspicions

BRITAIN
  • peace settlement (1763) - unhopeful for future American-British relations
  • thought colonial troops were cowardly, lazy, incompetent

Strengthening Relationship

  • Pitt treats colonists well; pays for troops
  • society structures mirror England: postal service, judicial, political system
  • 25, 000 colonial troops fought for Britain
  • salutary neglect - colonists have lots of freedom to govern themselves; admiration for Britain
  • colonists have protected economic market
  • Albany Congress - inter-colonial confederation - rejected; colonies are happy with relationships between Britain and each-other