Fun-o-logical Awareness

By: Allison Griffin and Rita Ruiz

5 Essential Elements- critical to successful reading instruction

  1. Phonemic awareness instruction (warm-up)

  2. Phonics instruction (apply #1)

  3. Fluency instruction (accuracy and automaticity)

  4. Vocabulary instruction (focused and integrated in the book)

  5. Comprehension instruction (retell with accuracy)

Research done by the National Reading Panel and is the building blocks of Reading First and Leave No Child Behind.

Phonological Awareness TEKS

K.2 Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

(B) identify syllables in spoken words;

(C) orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "What rhymes with hat?");

(D) distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E) recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball");

(F) blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset/c/ and rime/at/ make cat);

(G) blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g.,/m/ …/a/ …/n/ says man);

(H) isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words; and

(I) segment spoken one-syllable words into two to three phonemes (e.g., dog:/d/ …/o/ …/g/).

1.2 Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) orally generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of phonograms (e.g., -ask, -ant, -ain) and consonant blends (e.g., bl, st, tr);

(B) distinguish between long- and short-vowel sounds in spoken one-syllable words (e.g., bit/bite);

(C) recognize the change in a spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed (e.g., /b/l/o/w/ to /g/l/o/w/);

(D) blend spoken phonemes to form one- and two-syllable words, including consonant blends (e.g., spr);

(E) isolate initial, medial, and final sounds in one-syllable spoken words; and

(F) segment spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes (e.g., splat=/s/p/l/a/t/).

CPAA Student Language Scores

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Phonological Awareness Continuum

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Phonemic Awareness Importance

  • improves children’s word reading and comprehension:

    • For children to understand what they read, they must be able to read words quickly and accurately. (automaticity)

  • helps children learn to spell

    • Breaking words into segments help children learn to spell. Children who have phonemic awareness understand that sounds and letters are related in predictable ways.

Activity Time

Phonological Awareness Activities

Phonemic Awareness Manipulation

Now What?


Teaches children the relationship between letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. Children use these relationships to read and write words.

Goal of phonics instruction is to help children apply both phonemic and phonological awareness skills to decode and read words with automaticity.

Phonics Instruction Effectiveness

Systemic and Explicit phonics instruction is most effective

  • produces the greatest impact on children’s reading achievement when it begins in Kindergarten or First Grade

  • results in better growth in children’s ability to comprehend what they read

  • is beneficial to children regardless of their socioeconomic status

  • should include teaching letter shapes and names and all major letter and sound relationships.

Phonics Instruction

  • Synthetic: converting letters or letter combinations into sounds and then blend sounds together for recognizable words

  • Analytic: Children learn to analyze letter sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not produce sounds in isolation.

  • Analogy-based phonics: Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words they do not know that have similar parts

  • Phonics through Spelling; Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes-next step of the analytical

  • Onset-rime phonics instruction: Children learn to identify the sound of the letter or letters before the first vowel(the onset) in a one syllable word and the sound of the reaming part of the word (the rime)-second part of Analogy Based Phonics