the layers

the dark areas are sun spots, these areas are cooler

A solar prominence (also known as a filament when viewed against the solar disk) is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's hot outer atmosphere, called the corona

A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released.