By Catherine Wrestler and Colby Newton
Introduction of the Marine Biome
Stages of Succession
Area is uninhabited.
Area begins to grow small plants and algae that attract very small organisms.
Area grows more plants and attract more fish. These small fish attract larger fish.
Predation- The preying of one animal on another.
Ex. Leopard seal eating an Emperor penguin.
Mutualism- A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms are benefited.
Ex. A Clown fish living in an Anemone. The Anemone protects the clownfish
while it feeds if the fishes waste to benefit itself.
Commensalism- A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither benefited or harmed.
Ex. Barnacles living on turtles. The barnacles get a free ride but the turtle isn't effected.
Parasitism- A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expence of the other.
Ex. A Rhizocephala (a type of barnacle) burring itself into a crab and destroying its brain in order to
Competition- Two or more organisms competeing for limited recources.
Ex. The Blue whale and the Crabeater seal are in competition for krill.
Energy Pyramid- Marine Biology
Organisms and Adaptations
1) Fish obtain oxygen through their gills, through a special structure where the blood comes in contacts with the water, allowing it to get oxygen.
2) Certain animals, such as flatworms, sea stars, and flounder, have developed their bodies to live in deep ocean trenches where the pressure can be a thousand times stronger than the atmosphere.
3) whales, dolphins, and other aquatic mammals have adapted to holding their breathe for a longer deep sea dives. Larger lungs allow for the air supply to last under water for an hour.
4) Many animals have developed webbed feet that help them swim through their environment with ease, like seals or otters.
5) Many marine animals have adapted to rely on echolocation, allowing them to live in the darker parts of the ocean. Dolphins are known to use echolocation.
1) Underwater plants have very little or no cuticle formation because they do not need to worry about waterless.
2) roots are present for anchorage to keep the plants from washing away, instead of to find water
3) Many plant species have divided leaves so that they can get the most surface area for sunlight abortion in the photosynthesis process. Being underwater means they have to have a larger surface area to get more sunlight.
4) Many marine plants have adapted to move their own air filled couities to supply themselves with oxygen because it is harder to get underwater.
5) Many plants underwater have adapted to not have their xylem tubes to transport water since they are completely submerged in it already.
1) The deepest part of the marine biome is Mariana's trench with a depth of 36,200 feet. That is about 6.9 miles deep!
2) Humans have only explored about 10% of the oceans due to pressure issues as well as oxygen issues. There could be thousands of species we have not discovered yet!
3) The other 90% we haven't explored is almost completely dark and receives little sunlight!