The Sun

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The Sun
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All the Sun's layers
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Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere.
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Prominence

A solar prominence (also known as a filament when viewed against the solar disk) is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface. Prominences are anchored to the sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's hot outer atmosphere, called the corona.
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A Flare

Sometimes a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness is seen on the Sun. That is a Solar Flare. A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. On the sun's surface are huge magnetic loops called prominences.
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Auroras

An Aurora, sometimes referred to as a polar light, is a natural light display in the sky, predominantly seen in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions.