Mining and Fracking

All about Mining and Fracking

The 2 types of Mining are:

Subsurface Mining- consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits.

Surface Mining- is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits.

Examples of Mining:

Surface Mining-

Strip- is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden)

Open Pit- refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth through their removal from an open pit or borrow

Mountain Top Removal- is a form of coal mining that uses explosives to blast "overburden" off the top of some Appalachian mountains

Subsurface Mining-

Slope- is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material.

Drift- is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.

Shaft- refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

Images of Surface Mining:

Images of Subsurface Mining:


the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well.


-Not required to say what chemicals are in their products

-People have become seriously ill while living next to Fracking sites because of the contaminated water

-Greenhouse gasses that are being leaked are effecting the climate