Background Information 1833-1896
Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833. His father, Immanuel Noble was a engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in their hometown. His mother, Andriette Aslsell came from a wealthy family, but they were forced into bankruptcy the same year Alfred was born. For that, they moved to Finland, Russia and started a grocery store. Soon anfter in 1842 they moved to St. Petersburg.
Immanuel wanted the best for his kids so he was able to provide 1st class education taught by private teachers. At 17 years, he was already fluent in Swedish, Russian, French, English and German. His father then sent him abroad for further training in chemical engineering. Later one of his chemistry teachers, Professor Zinin drew Alfred and his father's attention to nitro glycerine.
Nobel was a scientist, inventor, entrepreneur, author and pacifist. He was the one who invented dynamite and many other explosives. He also constructed many companies and laboratories around the world. In 1863 he had succeeded in exploding nitroglycerin from a distance with a gunpowder charge and two years later he patented the Mercury fulminate detonator. After many fatal accidents, he tried to produce a safer explosives. Later in November 1895, Nobel signed his last will and testament establishing the Nobel prizes. The statutes of the foundation were formally adopted on June 29, 1900 and the first prize was awarded in 1901.