Spanish American War

Andrea Hoff

Imperialism

It is a state policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Because it always involves the use of power, whether military force or some subtler form, imperialism has often been considered morally reprehensible, and the term is frequently employed in international propaganda to denounce and discredit an opponent’s foreign policy
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Imperialism Citation

E. (2016). Imperialism. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from http://www.britannica.com/topic/imperialism

Spanish American War

It began in 1492, Spain was the first European nation to sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean, explore, and colonize the Amerindian nations of the Western Hemisphere. At its greatest extent, the empire that resulted from this exploration extended from Virginia on the eastern coast of the United States south to Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America excluding Brazil and westward to California and Alaska. Across the Pacific, it included the Philippines and other island groups. By 1825 much of this empire had fallen into other hands and in that year, Spain acknowledged the independence of its possessions in the present-day United States (then under Mexican control) and south to the tip of South America. The only remnants that remained in the empire in the Western Hemisphere were Cuba and Puerto Rico and across the Pacific in Philippines Islands, and the Carolina, Marshall, and Mariana Islands (including Guam) in Micronesia.

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Spanish American War Citation

T. (n.d.). Introduction. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from https://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html

The sinking of the USS Maine

The USS MAINE was one of the first United States battleships to be constructed. The vessel's destruction in the Cuba Harbor of Havana was a catalyst in bringing war between the United States and Spain. The loss of the ship was tremendous shock to the United States since it represented virtually the state of the art of naval shipbuilding in the United States, only recently eclipsed by newer vessels. "Remember the Maine" became the battlelecry of the United States Military Forces in 1898.

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The sinking of the USS Maine citation

McSherry, P. (n.d.). Maine. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from http://www.spanamwar.com/maine.htm

The "Rough Riders"

The Rough Riders is the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one of the three to see action. The United States Army was small and understaffed in comparison to its status during the American Civil War roughly thirty years prior. As a measure towards rectifying this situation President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. The regiment was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers" in honor of its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood. This nickname served to acknowledge that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former assistant secretary of the United States Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for American involvement in Cuban independence. When Colonel Wood became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, the Rough Riders then became "Roosevelt's Rough Riders." That term was familiar in 1898, from Buffalo Bill who called his famous western show "Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World." The Rough Riders were mostly made of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, miners, and other outdoorsmen.
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Rough Riders

Rough Riders. (2016). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rough_Riders

Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism was a style of newspaper reporting that emphasized sensationalism over facts. During its heyday in the late 19th century it was one of many factors that helped push the United States and Spain into war in Cuba and the Philippines, leading to the acquisition of overseas territory by the United States.

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Yellow Journalism Citation

O. (n.d.). U.S. Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism, 1895–1898 - 1866–1898 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/yellow-journalism

Platt Amendment

On March 2, 1901, the Platt Amendment was passed as part of the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill. It stipulated seven conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish–American War, and an eighth condition that Cuba sign a treaty accepting these seven conditions.

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Platt Amendment Citation

Platt Amendment. (2016). Retrieved February 16, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platt_Amendment

U.S. gaining the Panama Canal

The history of the Panama Canal goes back almost to the earliest explorers of the Americas. The narrow land bridge between North and South America houses the Panama Canal, a water passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The earliest European colonists of Central America recognized this potential, and schemes for such a canal were floated several times in the subsequent years. By the late nineteenth century, technological advances and commercial pressure advanced to the point where construction started in earnest. An initial attempt by France to build a sea-level canal failed, but only after a great amount of excavation was carried out. This was of use to the United States, which completed the present Panama Canal in 1913 and officially opened it in 1914. Along the way, the state of Panama was created through its separation from Colombia in 1903, due to a US backed revolt, so the US could then get control of the Canal project area.

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Panama Canal Citation

History of Panama Canal. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Panama_Canal

Big stick diplomacy

Roosevelt’s first noted public use of the phrase occurred when he advocated before Congress increasing naval preparation to support the nation’s diplomatic objectives. Earlier, in a letter to a friend, while he was still the governor of New York, Roosevelt cited his fondness for a West African proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” The phrase was also used later by Roosevelt to explain his relations with domestic political leaders and his approach to such issues as the regulation of monopolies and the demands of trade unions. The phrase came to be automatically associated with Roosevelt and was frequently used by the press, especially in cartoons, to refer particularly to his foreign policy; in Latin America and the Caribbean, he enacted the Big Stick policy (in foreign policy, also known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine) to police the small debtor nations that had unstable governments.

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Big stick policy Citation

E. (2016). Big Stick policy | United States history. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from http://www.britannica.com/event/Big-Stick-policy

Dollar Diplomacy

Dollar Diplomacy of the United States—particularly during President William Howard Taft's term— was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.

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Dollar Diplomacy Citation

Dollar diplomacy. (2016). Retrieved February 16, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dollar_diplomacy

Missionary diplomacy

    It was Woodrow Wilson's idea of the United States' moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government that was viewed as hostile to American interests. This was the first time America had failed to recognize any government, besides the Confederacy.


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Missionary diplomacy Citation

Missionary diplomacy. (2016). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missionary_diplomacy

Anti-imperialist league

On June 15, 1898, the Anti-imperialist league formed to fight U.S. annexation of the Philippines, citing a variety of reasons ranging from the economic to the legal to the racial to the moral. It included among its members such notables as Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, William James, David Starr Jordan, and Samuel Gompers with George S. Boutwell, former secretary of the Treasury and Massachusetts, as its president. Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the league began to decline and eventually disappeared.

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Anti-imperialist league

Anti-imperialist league. (2011, June 22). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/league.html from Library of Congress

Pancho Villa raids

In the early morning of March 9, 1916, several hundred Mexican guerrillas under the command of Francisco “Pancho” Villa cross the U.S.-Mexican border and attack the small border town of Columbus, New Mexico. Seventeen Americans were killed in the raid, and the center of town was burned. It was unclear whether Villa personally participated in the attack, but President Woodrow Wilson ordered the U.S. Army into Mexico to capture the rebel leader dead or alive.Before he invaded the United States, Pancho Villa was already known to Americans for his exploits during the Mexican Revolution. He led the famous Division del Norte, with its brilliant cavalry, Los Dorados, and won control of northern Mexico after a series of audacious attacks. In 1914, following the resignation of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta, Pancho Villa and his former revolutionary ally Venustiano Carranza battled each other in a struggle for succession. By the end of 1915, Villa had been driven north into the mountains, and the U.S. government recognized General Carranza as the president of Mexico.

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Pancho Villa raids Citation

A. (2016). Pancho Villa raids U.S. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pancho-villa-raids-u-s

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