Human Body Systems

Six of the Most Important Body Systems

The Immune System

What is the function of the Immune system?

The immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systemsand cause disease.

Why are antibiotics are effective against bacteria, but not against viruses?

Since bacterium are not alike to the cells in the human body, antibiotics can be taken by humans to kill bacteria without damaging those cells (of human body). Instead they depend on some host cell to do these duties for them. Therefore, viruses can't be treated with antibiotics as its impossible to damage the virus without potentially damaging the human's body's cells.

What is ONE major disorder that occurs within this system (AND HIV/AIDS)?

One of the three types of disorders of the immune system is called the Autoimmune Disease. This disease makes the body attack normal, healthy tissues. Some common symptoms are tiredness, muscle aches, and low fever. Treatments include costicosteriods.

Endocrine System

What is the function of the Endocrine system?

The endocrine system has glands that secrete hormones to regulate many bodily functions, including growth and metabolism.

What are Type I and Type II Diabetes?

  • Diabetes Type 1: A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces hardly any or no insulin. Symptoms are extreme thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. Treatments are maintaining normal blood sugar levels through regular monitoring, insulin therapy, diet, and exercise.
  • Diabetes Type 2: A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes glucose. Symptoms are extreme thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. Treatments are medication and insulin therapy, diet, and exercise.

Skeletal System

What is the function of the Skeletal system?

The function of the skeletal system is to form a solid framework that supports and protects the body's organs and anchors the skeletal muscles. The bones of the axial skeleton act as a hard shell to protect the internal organs from damage caused by external forces.

What are the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement?

Bones compose the body's skeleton, the bones are connected by ligaments, and the muscles are connected to the bones by tendons. When the muscles move, the tendons move first, then ligaments, then bones. During this, the nerves are busy sending impulses to the brain, spinal cord, muscles, and organs.

What are two of the seven major disorders that occur within the skeletal system?

  • Scoliosis: A sideways curve of the spine. Symptoms are pain in the back, physical deformity, muscle spasms, uneven waist, or leaning to one side. The only "treatments" are a brace or surgery.
  • Osteoperosis: A widespread disease of the skeletal system that results in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoperosis, the bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and sometimes it may disappear completely. Symptoms include pain in the back, bone fracture, or loss of height. Medications, healthy diets, and weight-bearing exercise can help to prevent this disease.

Muscular System

What is the function of the Muscular system?

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body.

How does skeletal muscle contract?

How does the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum occur?

The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions into the muscle interior where they bind to troponin, causing tropomyosin to shift from the face of the actin filament to which myosin heads need to bind to produce contraction.

How does the process of formation of cross-bridges occur?

A cross bridge is formed in muscles, it is the attachment formed by a myosin head binding to a binding site on a actin filament.

How does the sliding of actin and myosin filaments occur?

The sliding filament theory is the explanation that the myosin and actin filaments in the sarcomere slide past one another, cuuting the whole length of the sarcomere. In order to slide past one another, the myosin heads will interact with the actin filaments and, using ATP, bend to pull past the actin.

How is ATP used?

ATP is used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.

What are two major disorders that occur within this system?

a. a brief description

b. signs and symptoms

c. prevalence (statistics of occurrence)

d. treatment options

Nervous System

What is the function of the Nervous system?

The nervous system is responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

What are two major disorders that occur within this system?

  • Alzheimer's: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurological disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die. Symptoms are problems with memory, judgment, and thinking. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no cure (except for red wine, but scientists haven't decided yet).
  • Parkinson's: Parkinson's is the most common form of parkinsonism, a group of motor system disorders. It is a slowly progressing disease, and symptoms in which all of them result from the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Symptoms are tremor or trembling of the arms, jaw, legs, and face, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, slowness of movement, postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination. Treatments include medications, surgury, complementary and supportive therapies, such as diet, exercise, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy.

Reproductive System

What is the function of the Reproductive system?

The function of the reproductive system is to produce egg cells, to protect and nourish the offspring until birth, and to produce and deposit sperm.

What is the basic process of spermatogenesis?

It is to convert every diploid spermatogenium into four haploid cells.

What are the basic processes involved in oogenesis, and why is there an unequal division of cytoplasm?

Oogenesis is the formation of haploid cells from basic diploid cells.

What are 2 two major disorders that occur within this system?

  • Infertility: Infertility is the inability to produce offspring. Symptoms are the inability to get pregnant, anger, or anxiety. Treatments are hormone treatments, fertility drugs, and surgery.
  • Endodemetreosis: A disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus. Pain in the lower abdomen, vagina, rectum, pelvis, or lower back. Irregular menstruation, spotting, heavy menstruation, or painful menstruation. Inability to empty bowels, bloating, or constipation, abdominal fullness or cramping, nausea, abnormal vaginal bleeding, irregular uterine bleeding, sensitivity to pain, or infertility. Treatments are hormones and conservative surgery.