Digestive System Project

Chris Norris

The Mouth

Mechanically and Chemically break down food through the use of chewing and saliva. Salivary amylase breaks down carbohydrates into disaccharides. The teeth break down food mechanically with incisors, canines, and molars.

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Pharynx and Esophagus

A food ball is gathered by the tongue. The tongue then pushes it toward the back of the mouth into the pharynx . Peristalsis is a wave of muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract. Chemically, it also continues the movement of carbohydrates toward the stomach.
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The stomach is a J-shaped muscular sack with expandable walls located in the upper left side of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. For mechanical digestion in the stomach a wall is made of layers of muscles that contract in opposite directions. Mechanical digestion occurs when stomach walls contract strongly, mixing and churning the food. Chemical Digestion in the stomach occurs in the Gastic Glands. Hydrochloric acid provides an acidic environment for Pepsin to work properly and efficiently. Then pepsin breaks down proteins into shorter chains of amino acids called peptides.
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The Small Intestines

The Small Intestine digests carbohydrates, fats, completes the digestion of proteins, and absorbs nutrients. The pancreas is an organ located behind the stomach that secretes pancreatic fluid into the small intestines. Chemical digestion involves sodium bicarbonate which is found in pancreatic fluid and that protects the small intestines. The Gall Bladder, found in the small intestines stores bile, which is a salt containing detergent that dissolves cholesterol. Capillaries absorb monosaccharides and amino acids that are carried to the liver. The liver then neutralizes many toxic substances in blood and removes excess glucose.
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The Large Intestine / Colon

After absorption of nutrients in small intestine, undigested martial leaves the small intestine through this valve. The large intestine also absorbs water from remaining material in the digestive tract. The 4 major parts of the large intestine are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon.
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The rectum is an 8 inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon.
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The anus is the last part of the digestive system. The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets us know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid.
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