San Andreas Fault Earthquakes

Sydney Broich

How can damage around the San Andreas Fault lines be prevented?

“Even though people cannot stop earthquakes from happening, they can learn to live with the problems caused by earthquakes. Three major lines of defense against earthquake hazards are being developed” (USGS). No one can stop earthquakes, but they can do things to prepare for anything that happens. Currently, many ways to help get through the earthquakes are being created. I chose this quote because it explains ways that future damages could somehow be prevented. This makes me wonder, what are some ways damages are being prevented? It’s important to know this, because earthquakes will continue to happen all across the world.
Big image

What are some ways damages are being prevented?

“Three major lines of defense against earthquake hazards are being developed. Buildings in earthquake-prone areas should be designed and constructed to resist earthquake shaking… A second line of defense involves the selective use of land to minimize the effects of hazardous ground… The third line of defense will be the accurate prediction of earthquakes. “ (USGS). There are many ways that people are trying to prevent major affects from earthquakes. First, they are trying to avoid buildings that shake when an earthquake occurs. Also, they want to want to use less ground that is more dangerous during and earthquake. Lastly, they want to be able to predict more earthquakes. This quote is important because it explains the ways people are working to prevent future damages that come from earthquakes. This could be important later, because no one knows how big the next earthquake could be.
Big image

How are earthquakes around the San Andreas Fault being observed?

"These instruments, set 2 to 3 km beneath the Earth's surface, will form a San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). This project will directly reveal, for the first time, the physical and chemical processes controlling earthquake generation within a seismically active fault.” (USGS). I chose this quote, because it is good to know how seismic activity is being observed and recorded. It shows that scientists have found a way to learn more about the earthquakes using machines underneath the Earth.

Big image

What could happen with the fault lines in the future?

The plates moving cause some areas in California, and with this it shows that some day San Francisco and Los Angeles will be near each other. I chose this quote because it talks about how in the future, the fault lines will cause San Francisco and Los Angeles will be near each other. Right now, the two cities in California are about 347 miles apart.
Earthquake Video

Watch this video, that explains how earthquakes work!!

On record, how massive were some of the largest earthquakes in California?

“The first strong earthquake listed in earthquake annals for California occurred in the Los Angeles region in 1769. Four violent shocks were recorded by the Gaspar de Portola Expedition, in camp about 30 miles southeast of Los Angeles center. Most authorities speculate, even though the record is very incomplete, that this was a major earthquake” (USGS). So, Even though it is not quite recorded, the earthquake in the 1769, is one of the biggest earthquakes to hit California. There were also many shocks shocks that hit during this individual earthquake. It is important to know the largest earthquake recorded in an area. There could possibly be more earthquakes, even larger than this one, in the future.
Big image

Can science help protect us against earthquakes?

“By testing the effects of shaking on full-scale structures, LHPOST provides engineers the real-world data they need to hone their computer models and figure out how to make buildings safer in the future” (Wise). Scientists are working on tests that provide information, so they know how to make buildings less hazardous when an earthquake is to occur. It is important, because scientists are working on how to make the buildings a lot safer, meaning there will be less damage, and more people will have the chance to get to safety.

How severe can the earthquakes get around the San Andreas Fault?

“But the size and nature of the fault suggest that a rupture of the whole fault "could trigger a significant tsunami," says Wiseman. Small quakes such as the two she has documented could be signs that the region's crust is close to being "critically stressed” (Oerzen). I chose this quote because it shows how bad it could possibly get in the future, which is important to know. If you know how bad it can get, then there’s more of a chance that scientists can figure out how to avoid so much damage.
Big image

What could happen in the future with earthquakes?

“Seismologists believe that the Jan 17, 1994, Northridge, CA, earthquake may presage a larger intensity earthquake along the San Andreas fault line. The frequent 5.5 magnitude quakes in the region are similar to a cycle of quakes that occurred before the 1906 San Francisco, CA, earthquake” (Science News). So, due to an earthquake in the past, there are quite a few beliefs that there could be an even more large earthquake. The earthquake could be quite large, and would occur near the San Andreas Fault Line. I chose this quote because it shows how a significant earthquake, could cause something to happen later on. Knowing this can help scientists, because if it is as large as they predicted, then they can work on helping avoid damage.
Big image

Text Citations

- "The San Andreas Fault." The San Andreas Fault - XI. What Can Be Done. U.S. Geological Survey, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.

- "The San Andreas Fault." The San Andreas Fault - XI. What Can Be Done. U.S. Geological Survey, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.

- Wise, Jeff. "Can Science Make Us Safer? With Japan Still Reeling, U.S. Scientists Study Quake Zones Here to Help Minimize Potential Damage." Popular Mechanics May 2011: 53. Science In Context. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.

- Oerzen, Bobby. "Finding fault: geophysicist Kelly Wiseman is keeping a close watch on earthquake activity in one of Earth's danger zones." Current Science, a Weekly Reader publication 13 Apr. 2012: 8+. Science In Context. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

- Monastersky, Richard. "Los Angeles quake: a taste of the future?" Science News 22 Jan. 1994: 53. Science In Context. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

- San Andreas Fault." Encyclopedia of the American West. Ed. Charles Phillips and Alan Axelrod. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1996. U.S. History In Context. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

- "San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth." San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. U.S. Geological Survey, 23 July 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2016.

- "California." California. U.S. Geological Survey, 14 Jan. 2015. Web. 31 Mar. 2016.”

Photo/Video Citations

- Beichuan. Digital image. Boston.com. N.p., 27 May 2008. Web. 4 Apr. 2016.

- National Geographic. "Earthquakes 101." Earthquakes 101. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2016.

- Aust, Andrea. Earthquakes 101. Digital image. KQUED. kqued.com, 7 Feb. 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2016.

- D, Chadwick H. San Francisco Earthquake 1906. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 19 May 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2016.

- Kluft, Ian. San Andreas Fault. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 16 Nov. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2016.

- San Andreas Fault. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 18 Aug. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2016.

- NASA. San Andreas Fault. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 15 Nov. 2000. Web. 5 Apr. 2016.