COMPARISON PROJECT

ADDISON DELAGE

BEHAVIOR

Is the range of actions and mannerisiums made by individuals, organisms , systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the inanimate physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.

NATURAL

Is the existing earth made material, untouched by mankind. This could be anything from plants to weather. Natural life grows endlessly and is a cycles that continued without human intervention

NURTURED

To care for and encourage the growth or development of, an animal or any type of life.



below is an example of how nurturing plays a role in animal growth.

Nurtured By Nature

INNATE

To inherent in the essential character of something. this is the instincts that your posses at birth. like when you are hungry you crave food.

FIXED ACTION PLAN

This is sometimes used in ethology to denote an instinctive behavioral sequence that is relatively invariant within the species and almost inevitably runs to completion. More detailed analysis of behavioural sequences since the term was first coined has meant the term is now largely replaced by phrases such as "behaviour patterns" or "behavioural acts".

FORAGING

This is the process of obtaining food for consumption, many animals have a specific way they may forage for food. thats why many birds have sharp pointed beaks. this allows them to break into the tree bark, or hard grown to get food.

LEARNING

This builds on Innate habits, as one begins to learn more about the outside world they become more adaptive to their enviroment and then are able to live more sufficiently

MATURATION

This is the process of becoming mature the emergence of personal and behavioral characteristics through growth processes.

HABITUATION

Is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences. Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate behaviours, rather than behaviours developed during conditioning in which the process is termed "extinction".

Sensitization is the opposite process to habituation, i.e. an increase in the elicited behavior from repeated presentation of a stimulus. There may also be an initial increase in response immediately prior to the decline, a sensitization process followed by a habituation process.

Another related phenomenon is stimulus generalization, when habituation occurs in response to other stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. The opposing process, stimulus discrimination, is when habituation does not occur to other stimuli that are dissimilar to the original stimulus. A progressive decline of a behavior in a habituation procedure may also reflect nonspecific effects such as fatigue, which must be ruled out when the interest is in habituation as a learning process.

IMPRINTING

This is any kind of phase-sensitive learning, learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage, that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

This is a process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response. Classical conditioning was made famous by Ivan Pavlov and his experiments conducted with dogs. Classical conditioning became the basis for a theory of how organisms learn, and a philosophy of psychology developed by John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner and others. Learning theory grew into the foundation of Behaviorism, a school of psychology that had great societal influence in the mid-20th century.
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OPERANT CONDITIONING

It sometimes referred to as instrumental learning, is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments for behavior. It encourages the subject to associate desirable or undesirable outcomes with certain behaviors.

PLAY

Is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Play is most commonly associated with children and their juvenile-level activities, but play can also be a useful adult activity, and occurs among other higher-functioning (non-human) animals as well.

KINESIS

like a taxis or tropism, is a movement or activity of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus. However, unlike taxis, the response to the stimulus provided, as gas exposure, light intensity or ambient temperature is non-directional.

Kinesis is an animal's non-directional response to a stimulus, for example humidity. The animal does not move toward or away from the stimulus but moves at either a slow or fast rate depending on its "comfort zone." In this case a fast movement (non-random) means that the animal is searching for its comfort zone but a slow movement indicates that it has found it.

TAXIS

Is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food. Taxes are innate behavioral responses. A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that the organism has motility and demonstrates guided movement towards or away from the stimulus source. It is sometimes distinguished from a kinesis, a non-directional change in activity in response to a stimulus.

MIGRATION

Broadly defined as directional movement to take advantage of spatially distributed resources, is a dramatic behaviour and an important component of many life histories that can contribute to the fundamental structuring of ecosystems.
Amazing Animal Migrations

RITUAL

In psychiatry and psychology, any psychomotor activity sustained by an individual to relieve anxiety or forestall its development; typically seen in obsessive-compulsive neurosis.

SIGNAL

This is any kind of coded message sent from one organism to another, or from one place in an organism to another place. Vocal calls. Some social behaviours. Chemical signals.