Dakota, Brandon, Abby !
- Universal Negro Imporvement Association
- Belived that African Americans could and should look out for their own interests and the involvment from whites
- He was highly critical of W.E.B DuBois. He believed that the NAACP undermined and discouraged African Americans
- He was charged with mail fraud
It was time for a cultural celebration. African Americans had endured centuries of slavery and the struggle for abolition. The end of bondage had not brought the promised land many had envisioned. Instead, white supremacy was quickly, legally, and violently restored to the New South, where ninety percent of African Americans lived. Starting in about 1890, African Americans migrated to the North in great numbers. This great migration eventually relocated hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North. Many discovered they had shared common experiences in their past histories and their uncertain present circumstances. Instead of wallowing in self-pity, the recently dispossessed ignited an explosion of cultural pride. Indeed, African American culture was reborn in the Harlem Renaissance.