Architectural Terms

Shivam Jaiswal

Arch

A curved structure capable of spanning a space and can support significant weight

Chair Rail

a molding on a wall around a room to protect the wall from being damaged by the backs of chairs.

Column Capital

It is the topmost member of the column, it mediates between column and load thrusting surface. It broadens the are of columns supporting surface.

Dormer

A structural element of a building that protrudes from the plane of a sloping roofsurface.

Fanlight

Window, semicircular or semi-elliptical in shape, with glazing bars or tracery sets radiating out like an open fan.

Fluting

A groove or set of grooves forming a surface decoration.

Masonry

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar

Parapet

A low wall built up above the level of a roof, to hide the roof or to provide protection against falling, and similar structures associated with balconies, bridges etc.

Pilaster

A slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall.

Portico

A series of columns or arches in front of a building, generally as a covered walkway.

Roof

A roof is part of a building envelope, both the covering on the uppermost part of abuilding or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain, but also heat, wind and sunlight; and the framing or structure which supports the covering.

Stucco

Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe.

Wainscot

Wainscot is an area of wooden paneling on the lower part of the walls of a room.

Brackets

Weight-bearing member made of wood, stone, or metal that overhangs a wall.

Chimney

A structure that provides ventilation

Corbel

A structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight.

Eaves

Eaves is the part of a roof that meets or overhangs the walls of a building.

Finial

a distinctive ornament at the apex of a roof, pinnacle, canopy, or similar structure in a building.

Frieze

a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.

Molding

A decorative finishing strip

Pediment

Pediment in classic architecture the triangular-shaped portion of the wali above the cornice which formed the termination of the roof behind it. The projecting mouldings of the cornice which surround it enclose the tympanum, which is sometimes decorated with sculpture.

Pillar

Pillar is a tall vertical structure of stone, wood, or metal, used as a support for a building, or as an ornament or monument.

Quoins

The cornerstones of brick or stone walls.

Sill

a Shelf or slab of stone, wood, or metal at the foot of a window or doorway.

Tower

A tall narrow building, either freestanding or forming part of a building such as a church or castle.

Buttress

A projecting support of stone or brick built against a wall.

Column

An upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete, supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument.

Cupola

A small dome, especially a small dome on a drum on top of a larger dome, adorning a roof or ceiling.

Facade

A face of a building, especially the front which faces the road or the street.

Floor plan

A scale diagram of arrangement of a room of a building.

Lintel

A horizontal support of timber, stone, concrete, or steel across the top of a door or window.

Mullions

A vertical bar between the panes of glass in windows

Pendant

A light designed to hang from the ceiling

Porch


A covered shelter projecting in front of the entrance of a building.

Rafters

One of several internal beams extending from the eaves to the peak of a roof and constituting its framework.

Stoop

A stoop is a small staircase ending in a platform and leading to the entrance of an apartment building or other building.

Transom Light

A transverse horizontal structural beam or bar, or a crosspiece separating a door from a window above it.