Progressive Era

American History II Honors

Progressives

  • Favoring change, or reform, as being against to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters

Salvation Army

  • Christian church and a charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion.

Social Gospel Movement

  • A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religion to demand better housing and living conditions for the poor

Consumer

  • A person who purchases goods and services for personal use.

Temperance Movement

  • A social movement against the consumption of alcohol

Muckrakers

  • reporters at the turn of the 20th century who won this name from Theodore Roosevelt, but wrote about widespread corruption in American society

Settlement House

  • Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, they were in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, and social connections for new arrivals to the US

Jacob Riis

  • A Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the poor by publishing his book "How the other half lives."

Jane Addams

  • She helped turn the US to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace.

National Woman Suffrage Association

  • NWSA American organization, founded in New York City, that was created by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. An organization founded to demand the vote for women

Municipal Reform

  • Changes in city governments made to encourage greater efficiency, honesty, and responsiveness

Political Machines

  • A political machine is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses

Robert La Follette

  • U.S. leader of the Progressive Movement, who as governor of Wisconsin and U.S. senator was noted for his support of reform legislation

Secret Ballot

  • A voting method in which a voter's choices in an election are anonymous

Initiative

  • A progressive reform measure allowing voters to petition to have a law placed on the general ballot

Referendum

  • A progressive reform procedure allowing voters to place a bill or on the ballot for final approval, even after being passed by legislature

Recall

  • A progressive ballot procedure allowing voters to remove elected officials from office

Direct Primary

  • A primary in which members of a party nominate its candidates by direct vote

17th Amendment

  • Established that senators were to be elected directly

Women's Suffrage movement

  • he right of women to vote and to stand for electoral office

Child Labor

  • Refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is deemed harmful

Susan B. Anthony

  • An American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement

Alice Paul

  • An American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the 19th Amendment

Theodore Roosevelt

  • Roosevelt confronted the bitter struggle between management and labor head-on and became known as the great "trust buster" for his strenuous efforts to break up industrial combinations under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. These three demands are often referred to as the "three C's.

Meat Inspection Act

  • A law passed by Congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspection

Pure Food and Drug Act

  • A law passed by Congress to inspect and regulate the labeling of all foods and pharmaceuticals intended for human consumption

William Howard Taft

  • 27th President of the United States, he was progressive in his polices, and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States

16th Amendment

  • Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the U.S. Census

Woodrow Wilson

  • Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission

Graduated Income Tax

  • A progressive tax system, failure to index the brackets to inflation will result in effective tax increase, as inflation in wages will increase individual income and move individuals into higher tax brackets with higher percentage rate

Federal Reserve Act

  • An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board

Clayton Antitrust Act

  • Law extending the anti-trust protections of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural organizations from antimonopoly constraints

Federal Trade Commission

  • Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition false advertising, and mislabeling of goods