Empires in Collision

1750-1900

The Overview- A Map in Time

  • 1793 Chinese reject British requests for open trade
  • 1798 Napoleon invades Egypt
  • 1830s Famine and Rebellions in Japan
  • 1838-42 First Opium War in China
  • 1838-76 Tanzimat Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
  • 1850-64 Taiping Uprising in China
  • 1856-58 Second Opium War in China
  • 1853 Admiral Perry arrives in Japan
  • 1868 Meiji Restoration in Japan
  • 1894-95 Sion-Japanese War
  • 1896 Ethiopian defeat of Italy preserves Ethiopia's independence
  • 1899-1901 Boxer Rebellion in China
  • 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
  • 1908-Young Turk takeover in Ottoman Empire
  • 1910-Japan annexes Korea
  • 1911-Chinese Revolution; End of the Qing Dynasty

Table of Contents- "Second thoughts"

  1. Taiping Uprising
  2. Opium Wars
  3. Unequal Treaties
  4. Self-Strengthening Movement
  5. Boxer Uprising
  6. Commissioner Lin
  7. Chinese Revolution of 1911
  8. "The Sick Man of Europe"
  9. Tanzimat
  10. Young Ottomans
  11. Sultan Abd al-Hamid ll
  12. Young Turks
  13. Informal Empires
  14. Tokugawa Japan
  15. Meiji Restoration
  16. Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905

Taiping Uprising 1850-1864

Significance- A pheasant uprising in China because the population and debts to the Western World was growing, therefore, China's economy could not keep up like how the Industrial Revolution helped the West.

1st & 2nd Opium Wars 1838-1858

Significance: China's people were addicted to the illegal substance sold b European merchants. When the Chinese leadership cracked down on the drug, Britain sent a Naval fleet to enforce her rights for trade; thus beginning the First and Second Opium Wars.

Unequal Treaties 1842

Significance: Seriously eroded China's independence by the end of the century. Moving the influential power to China's enemies or neighbors.
1st and 2nd Opium Wards + 2 Unequal Treaties

Self-Strengthening Movement 1860s and 1870s

Significance: China trying to be independent, by conservatism, meaning China tried to hone a traditional system. China also trying to industrialize to keep up with foreigners.
Chinese Self-strengthening Movement

Boxer Uprising 1898-1901

Significance: Started by the failure of the Self-Strengthening movement. Chinese militia killed Europeans and Christians because of their apparent superiority over the Chinese people.
The Boxer Rebelion

Commissioner Lin

Significance: Represented the poor because he is from the poor, he can't be persuaded, and he sought to reform China from the unequal treaties.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

Significance: The Chinese Government, lead by Commissioner Lin, to regain and dispose of opium in China against Opium traders, particularly the Europeans
Chinese revolution 1911-1949 1/10

"The Sick Man of Europe"

Significance: The Ottoman falling from the Islamic power and representative to a similar position of China with increased dependency on Europe.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Tanzimat

Significance: In the several decades after 1839, more far-reaching reformist measures, known as the Tanzimat (Reorganization), took shape as the Ottoman leadership sought to provide the economic, social, and legal underpinnings for a strong and newly recentralized state.

Young Ottomans

Significance: A new younger social class in the Ottoman pushing reform for a European style Democracy. Temporarily gained a parliament but, however, the Ottoman officials, including Sultan Abd al-Hamid II, rejected the European enemies governing system and then set forth a short lived Islamic Revolution.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

Significance: In 1876, the Young Ottomans experienced a short-lived victory when the Sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) accepted a Constitution and an elected Parliament, but not for long. Under the pressure of the war with Russia, the Sultan soon suspended the reforms and reverted to an older style of despotic rule for the next thirty years, even renewing himself as caliph.

Young Turks

Significance: Opposition to the Sultan's despot rule. Consisting of Civil Elites and the military, lead by Abdullah Cevdet. They adopted everything European because they believed the Europeans are Superior.
Who Were The Young Turks?

Informal Empires

Significance: The state of the Ottoman and Chinese Empires after European Domination. They were in the middle of European Colony and a sovereign Nation. Both had their own government, but however, that government was severely dependent on Europeans.

Tokugawa Japan

Significance: Named after a Japanese emperor but actually ruled by a Shogunate. The Shogunate's goal was to prevent another Civil War and to industrialize Japan.

Meiji Restoration

Significance: The Tokugawa's popularity was decreasing and it eventually fell when they accepted unequal treaties with the United States. The Meiji Restoration Replaced the Tokugawa.
Meiji Restoration

Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905

Significance: Japan versus Russia. Japan wins, finally liberating itself from European imperialism. This gave hope to the rest of the world that they to can escape imperialism. Made Japan a major player in world affairs.

Conclusion 1750-1900

The Period between 1750-1900 witnessed the rise of European and American Imperialism and dominance, with the exception of Japan. The east further relying on the West for trade, social, and military might.