# Ripple Tank Project

## Simple Waves

Transverse Waves- A wave in which the direction of displacement is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, as a surface wave of water.

- There are always two directions that are independent of each other that can be used as the direction of wave.

Longitudinal- In a longitudinal wave, the motion of the particles is parallel to the motion of the wave. When a longitudinal waves moves through a medium, the particles of the medium alternately move closer together and farther apart. The "closer together" part is called a compression, and the "farther apart" part is called a rarefaction.

- Longitudinal waves are difficult to visualize because the motion of the particles is in the same direction as the wave. One way of seeing a longitudinal wave is to stretch out a slinky, and push it in and out. This will set up a wave train made of compressions and rarefactions.

How are waves created?

Waves are created by a wiggle or vibration in time or space which may cause the surrounding medium to vibrate, creating waves. Waves are just a transfer of energy. Waves are up and down motion with direction (defined as a wiggle in time and space), vibration is just up and down motion. A medium is a substance by which another substance is carried or transferred. Light and sound are good examples of waves. Light comes from the sun and travels at the speed of light. Light is special because it doesn't need a medium to transfer through. Sound, like radio waves, travel through air (the medium) in longitudinal waves.

Wave Theory-

The wave theory states that all the particles exhibit both wave as well as particle nature. It is the defining force behind all types of waves, including sound. The nature of sound waves are the very basis for life and civilization on Earth. Without wave theory, life could not exist.

## Spherical Wave

Definition- Waves of constant frequency that travel perpendicular to their origin, in a circular pattern

Wave Length- .02 m

Wave Frequency- 8 Hz

Wave Speed- .16 m/sec

## Plane Waves

Defintion-A constant-frequency wave whose wave fronts are infinite parallel planes.

Wave Length- .03 m

Wave Length- 6 Hz

Wave Speed- .18 m/sec

## Interferences

Dual Pin-

The interference between two sets of concentric waves that share the same frequency.

Double Slit-

The interference from two sets of waves originating from a single source, that traveled through a barrier with two slits

Constructive-

The combination of two or more waves, that results in a new wave pattern with a greater amplitude

Destructive-

The combination of two or more waves, that results in a new wave pattern with a lesser amplitude

Differences

Dual Pin-

• Originates from two sources

• Starts as a spherical wave

• Waves interfere with only each other

Double Slit-
• Originates from a single source

• Starts as a plane wave

• Waves interfere with stationary objects
Ripple Tank Double Slit Interference - Slow Motion
Ripple Tank Double Slit Interference - Slow Motion

## Reflection/ Diffraction

Wave Reflection-

A change in the direction a wave is traveling after bouncing off a barrier between two kinds of media

Wave diffraction-

Change in the intensity or direction of a wave after passing by an obstruction who's size is about the size of the wavelength.

-The smaller the distance of the diffraction, the greater the deflection.

Law of Reflection-

The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence

## Citations

"Categories of Waves." The Physics Classroom. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

"Physics." Physics. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://physics-vishma.blogspot.com>.

The Speed of a Wave." The Physics Classroom. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

"Types of Waves | Science Primer." Tools for learning | Science Primer. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

<http://www.scienceprimer.com/types-of-waves>.