Ancient Mesopotamia

By: Jackson Hoskins


1. Farmers raised livestock and used oxen to plow their fields. They grew crops such as wheat, barley, dates, and vegetables. Water was an important resource because Mesopotamia had little rainfall. Farmers had to use irrigation and canals to water their crops.

2. When the irrigation water sat in fields and evaporated it left behind mineral salts. The salts would poison the fields. The poisoned fields made Mesopotamia fall because people could get enough food so people died. They kept having to move most farms were poisoned.

3. The mesopotamians ate wheat, barley, fish, date, bread, beer, cow milk, vegetable stew, figs, apples, pears, grapes, quinces, plums, apricots, mulberries, melon, and cakes made with butter, cheese, and flour.

4. They would live near rivers because water is the main resource that they need to farm. Without it they could not have grown much food. Also there was little rain so theny needed to be able to use river water for irrigation.

5. You would plow your field with an oxen. Then you would plant your field. Then you would wait your turn to irrigate it. Regulators were used to control irrigation. When it was your turn to water your fields you would have to have someone adjust the regulator. Irrigation would then irrigate your field.


1. The hanging gardens of Babylon were probably built by King Nebuchadnezzar as a gift to his wife who was homesick. It was supposed to look like a man-made mountain with trees and gardens. There were different levels of terraces. Soil was on each level and trees, bushes, and flowers were planted in the soil and would hang over the sides. There had to be a way to irrigate the gardens so they used a chain pump to get water to the top.

2. The Mesopotamians invented the wheel, cuneiform, the cylinder seal, and the game of checkers. The wheel was important because it made work easier and it changed the way they did things.

3. Cuneiform was invented by the Sumerians. It was the first written language and it was made up of wedge shaped symbols.

4. There were four main classes of people in ancient Mesopotamia. They were the priests, the upper class, the lower class, and the slaves.

5. A ziggurat was a temple that was located in the center of town. It was very large and had steps leading to the top. Priests would lead religious ceremonies at the top. People would leave offerings to the gods on the steps. It was a place for people to worship their many gods and goddesses.


1. Mesopotamia was located in Southwest Asia inbetween Asia Minor and the Persian Gulf. It lay between the Tigris and Euphrates river. Mesopotamia means " city between the rivers".

2. The map of historical Mesopotamia is below

3. The climate in Mesopotamia had seasons of cool and hot weather. It could get very hot and temperatures could reach over 110 degrees Fahreinhiet. There was moderate rainfall and seasonal flooding.

4. Ancient Mesopotamia was located in the present day country of Iraq.

5. Elm City Middle School is about 6,404.96 miles from Baghdad, Iraq.


1. Some of the civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia were Sumer, Kish, Ur, Uruk, and the Akkadians.

2. A new civilization would begin when a population would grow and want to have their own city. It would have some form of government and a military. There would be different classes of people. Some people would be rich and some would be poor. The civilization would invent new technology and have a some sort of writing. Religion would be important to them. New forms of art and culture would be part of the civilization.

3. The Hammurabi Laws were important because they were laws that dealt with every part of daily life. They were also written down for everyone to see. They were fair because they gave poor and rich people many of the same rights.

4. I find the Hammurabi Law numbers 200, 210, 223, 230, and 243 interesting. The Yale translation of these laws are:

Law 200--if a man knocks out a tooth of an equal, his teeth shall be knocked out

Law 210--if a woman dies because a man strikes her, his daughter shall be put to death

Law 223--if a physician heals the broken bone or diseased soft part of a slave, his owner shall pay the physician two shekels

Law 230--if a wrongly built house falls and kills the owner's son, the builder's son shall be put to death

Law 243--as rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the owner

5. Gilgamesh was an ancient King of Uruk who was on the Sumerian King List. Stories about him say that his name was Gilgamesh and that he was part man and part god.

Once upon a time Gilgamesh was alone and he was thinking. He knew he was the strongest in all the earth and that he could fight anyone and win. He was bored. For fun he liked to scare people by having temper tantrums. He didn't have anyone to fight anymore because the monsters were hiding from him. He decided to ask the gods for something fun to do. So the gods sent a man named Enkidu who was faster and stronger than Gilgamesh. Enkidu started to make trouble and so Gilgamesh fought with him. They would wrestle each other but neither could win because they were such a good match. After awhile they began to laugh and Enkidu and Gilgamesh became friends. They were bored in the city and left to go somewhere else to look for fun. Everyone in the city of Uruk was happy because there was no more trouble. The city was peaceful. They hoped Enkidu and Gilgamesh would stay away for a long time.