By Lisa Jin

Life In The 1880s

Life In The 1880s , was tough,and completely to the contrary of the 21st century.Nowadays, we have complicated and more sophisticated forms of technology than we did in the olden days, for example computers and playstations.The forms of travelling were primitive and poor and the technology was slow.

Reasons For Federation

Since 1901,Australia wasn't a nation.Each of the states were self governing and had their own systems.This caused a lot of problems and people began thinking about the benefits of combining each other's strengths.Then in 1880, they thought about making an utopia or a paradise that combines the states together,Australia.

One of the key reasons for Federation was to create a stronger defence force which could better protect Australia. A Russian ubiquity in the Pacific, Germany occupying parts of New Guinea and France having colonised New Caledonia ,which left the colonies in fear that they might strive to take over Australia as well.

Aside from a fear of coming under foreign attack, concern over being taken over by non-white immigrants was another gargantuan factor which urged people to support Federation.Although several colonies already had enforced laws which restricted newcomers from specific countries, all of the colonies were keen to grow their immigration policies stronger by uniting to keep non-whites out of Australia.

Federation Day And First Federal Parliament

Federation day is on 1 January in Sydney and at the opening of its first Federal Parliament on 9 May.

Key Figures In The Australian Federation

Sir Edmund Barton

Sir Edmund Barton, was born on 18 January 1849 and died 19 years after federation in 7 January 1920 was an Australian politician and judge. He served as the First Prime Minister Of Australia from 1901 to 1903 (2 Years)and became a founding appeal of the High Courts Of Australia.

Barton first became an MP (Member Of Parliament)in 1879, in the Parliament of New South Wales.

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Sir Henry Parkes

Sir Henry Parkes was born on 27 May 1815 and died at an age of 81 on 27 April 1896 .He was a colonial Australian politician and longest impetuos Premier of New South Wales. He has been referred to as the "Father of Federation" due to his early promotion for the federation of the six colonies of Australia and as an early expert of British convict transportation and as a proponent for the expansion of the Australian continental rail network.

Parkes delivered his famous Tenterfield Oration in 1889 which led to his influence of a meeting in 1890 and a Constitutional Convention in 1891 the first set of meetings that led to the federation of Australia. He died in 1896, five years before this process was 100% finished. He was described during his lifetime by The Times as "the most commanding figure in Australian politics".

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Charles Cameron Kingston

Charles Cameron Kingston was born on 1850 October 22 and died in 1908 May 11 , as 57 years old.Kingston was a lawyer and politician, was born on younger son of Sir George Strickland Kingston and his second wife Ludovina Catherina da Silva, née Cameron. He was educated at J.L Young's Adelaide Educational Institution and later articled to Sir Samuel James Way. He was permitted to the Bar in 1873, after the elder brother of Lucy May McCarthy failed to oppose his employment on the alleged ground that Kingston had coaxed Lucy. Later in the year, on 25 June, they married.
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Establishing the Australian Constitution

The Australian Constitution was drafted at a series of essential meetings held in the 1890s. It was passed by the British Parliament as part of the Commonwealth of Australia

The Australian Constitution is the set of rules by which Australia is administered. Australians voted for the federal constitution in a series of referendums. The Australian Constitution establishes the layout of the Australian Parliament, and portrays how Parliament works, what capabilities it has.Also how federal and state Parliaments share potential, and the roles of the Executive Government and the High Court. It took effect on 1 January 1901.

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Federation Celebrations

Centennial Park was the place the new Australians celebrated federation in 1901.Schools joined in honouring federation by elevating the Union Jack, the flag of Britain and its Empire introduced into their schoolyards for the celebration, and the focus of consecutive school ceremonies.

Conservative Australian and state governments in 1905 fortified its role by appointing Empire Day on the 24 May, the birthday of the late Queen Victoria, to encourage those who were petrified that federation would weaken the ties of sequential kins of Australians to Britain. But the day also to be of assistance to upgrade their crusade against an egressing Labor Party.

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