Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)

Christian Pilarski

"Life" and Accomplishments of PAC

The PAC was founded in April of 1959, after an "Africanist" sect of the ANC split away from it. The PAC was known for being more militaristically driven and radical than its "mother" organization, the ANC. The PAC is most notable for its involvement in the Pass Laws Protests in 1960, which subsequently led to the Sharpeville and Langa Massacres. These two events drastically changed the general publics opinion on the matter and led a more militaristically driven Anti-Apartheid Movement. The creation of Poqo, meaning "Pure", was a symbol of things to come. Poqo was the armed sect of the PAC, proving true to their purpose on March 16, 1962, by killing an African police officer along with injuring five other civilians after setting fire to a vehicle. Poqo, throughout the years of their existence, attacked many police officers and other people in the South African Government. The PAC also played a crucial role in the evolution of the ANC into a more militaristic organization. The PAC also received support from abroad, especially from China, who helped both financially and with military training. With their dramatic rise, the PAC also included a Women's Wing, which was much more active after 1977 due to their reorganization. Overall, the PAC was a militaristically driven Anti-Apartheid group who was able to gain support from foreign nations as well as domestic support.
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Significance of the PAC

Overall, it can be seen that the PAC was one of the major organizations of the Anti-Apartheid movement. One part in particular is that the PAC was major is that the PAC was the catalyst of was the militaristic shift of most Anti-Apartheid groups, especially the ANC. Also, it was one of the few Anti-Apartheid groups to originate from a militaristic ideal and still be very successful with membership and in organization. However, there were numerous downfalls to the tactics of the PAC, the first of which was the isolation of the African race, because it excluded the other races, Coloured, Indian, and Whites from being a part of the movement. In fact, the PAC's actions actually caused the other races to become more apprehensive about the movement. Also, on top of excluding other races, the Poqo murdered numerous innocent people, and this actions are among the most debatable historical events in history. The PAC also changed the nations who were supporters of the Anti-Apartheid movement, from the majority of the world, to China, Russia and a few others. The PAC was easily one of the most debatable and influential organizations in the Anti-Apartheid movement.

Primary Source

Independence Speech – Kwame Nkrumah March 6, 1957, Accra, Ghana

At long last, the battle has ended! And thus, Ghana, your beloved country is free forever!

And yet again, I want to take the opportunity to thank the people fo this country; the youth, the farmers, the women who have so nobly fought and won the battle.

Also, I want to thank the valiant ex-service men who have so cooperated with me in this mighty task of freeing our country from foreign rule and imperialism.

And, as I pointed out… from now on, today, we must change our attitudes and our minds. We must realise that form now on we are no longer a colonial but free and independent people.

But also, as I pointed out, that also entails hard work. That new Africa is ready to fight his own battles and show that after all the black man is capable of managing his own affairs.

We are going to demonstrate to the world, to the other nations, hat we are prepared to lay our foundation – our own African personality.

As I said to the Assembly a few minutes ago, I made a point that we are going t create our own Africa personality and identity. It is the only way we can show the world that we are ready for our own battles.

But today, may I call upon you all, that on this grer that at day let us all remember that nothing can be done unless it has the purport and support of God.

We have won the battle and again rededicate ourselves … OUR INDEPENDENCE IS MEANINGLESS UNLESS IT IS LINKED UP WITH THE TOTAL LIBERATION OF AFRICA.

Let us now, fellow Ghanaians, let us now ask for God’s blessing for only two seconds, and in your thousands and millions.

I want to ask you to pause for only one minute and give thanks to Almighty God for having led us through our difficulties, imprisonments, hardships and sufferings, to have brought us to our end of troubles today. One minute silence.

Ghana is free forever! And here I will ask the band to play the Ghana National Anthem.

Reshaping Ghana’s destiney, I am depending on the millions of the country, and the chiefs and the people, to help me to reshape the destiny of this country. We are prepared to pick it up and make it a nation that will be respected by every nation in the world.

We know were going to have difficult beginnings, but again, I am relying n your support…. I am relying upon your hard work.

Seeing you in this… It doesn’t matter how far my eyes go, I can see that you are here in your millions. And my last warning to you is that you are to stand firm behind us so that we can prove to the world that wen the African is given a chance, he can show the world that he is somebody!

We have awakened. We will not sleep anymore. Today, from now one, there is a new African in the world!