Hittites

By, Will and Shubhan

Basics

1700-1200 B.C.E.

The Hittites originated in the Caucasus Mountains and migrated to Asia in 1900 B.C.E. and established a kingdom on the Anatolian Plateau in modern day Turkey

The Hittites kingdom fell around 1300 and 1200 B.C.E. with the arrival of the sea people who were a group of invaders with different ethnic backgrounds. But small groups of Hittites survived in cities like Carchemish. In the eight century B.C.E. when the Assyrians absorbed them all into their society

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Aspects of Civilization

Advanced cities

Advanced Cities-

The old Hittite history begins with the leader Labarna who conquered Hattusas which became the capital of the Hittite kingdom in modern day Turkey. The first conquest was the town of Nesa also in modern day Turkey. Mursilis the first raided deep into Babylonia capturing Aleppo setting the the kingdoms southern boundary to Syria. In 1300 b.c.e. the hittite king Muwalallis moved the capital from Hattusas to Tarhuntasha but moved back to Hattusas after Muwalallis was no longer ruling.

Social Structure

The society relied on aristocracy which meant that whoever ruled must be part of the royal family. There was a kings guard of 1,200 - 12,000 and paid mercenaries. There were slaves at the bottom and there were freeman such as priests and priestesses. There where lords and nobleman.

Religion

A wall around the city called Yazilikaya which means inscribed rock was considered a religious sanctuary. Little about their religion is know but they are polytheistic because carvings have been found that show a storm god and a sun goddess. The great king is the chief priest to the storm god.

Government

The hittites had a supreme ruler called the Great King. Due to having a strong aristocracy absolute rule was difficult to obtain. A simpler earlier form of feudalism was the basic social and governmental structure. The local lords where expected to supply troops in case of an emergency.

System of writing

The hittites used a form of writing called cuneiform, one of the worlds oldest writings, used by most of Mesopotamia. It being so hard to learn scribes where admired public figures.

Technological contributions

They where the first society to develop the process of smelting iron in large amounts. Since everybody used bronze weapons this gave using iron gave them a huge advantage.

Artifacts

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Artifact 1- Iron weapons

The hittites where the first to mass produce steal and use steal weapons. Everyone used bronze weapons then and the hittites had an advantage. If it weren't for the hittites we wouldn't be as far along as we are today.
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Artifact 2- Yazilikaya god carvings

The hittites had complex structures around their kingdom with carvings of their Gods leading us to believe that they where polytheistic.
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Artifact 3- Hittite Cuneiform

The hittites, alike most Mesopotamian societies, had cuneiform as their system of writing.
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Anatolian plateau

The hittites society established a kingdom on the Anatolian plateau
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Primary Document

This tablet is the hittites Egyptian peace treaty that is on display at the Istanbul Archeology Museum.