Skills and Effective Practices

Steve Katz, AET/560, May 2, 2016, Leo Giglio

Theories Of Practice That Create Change

I. Lewin’s Change Theory~Three stages of Change:

Unfreeze—the process that awakens a system to the need for change—in other words, the realization that the existing equilibrium or the status quo is no longer tenable

Change—the period in the process in which participants in the system recognize and enact new approaches and responses that they believe will be more effective in the future

Refreeze—the change is assimilated and the system reenters a period of relative equilibrium

II. Beckhard and Harris’s Change Management Process

Organizational analysis—the stage in the process used to understand the forces for change and the reasons why the organization is performing as it currently does

Why change—the stage of the process in which the need for change is determined and the nature of the change or vision is characterized in terms others can understand

Gap analysis—the identification of the distance between the desired future state and the present state at which the system operates

Action planning and transition management—the stage of the process in which plans are developed for bridging the gap between the current mode of operation and the desired future state and the means by which the transition will be managed. Managers also need to consider how to measure change and what measures will be used to help identify where the organization is and the level of success achieved (Cawsey, Deszca, & Ingols, 2012, p. 52).

III. The Incentive Theory of Motivation, also known as the Reward Motivation Theory, states that an external reward or incentive fuels motivation. Vroom’s expectancy-value model has shown success in the areas of social behaviors, achievement motivation, and work motivation. “Researchers concerned primarily with human motivation have suggested that much of human behavior can be understood as being directed toward specific goals” (Britannica, 2014, para. 3).

Characteristics of Change Leader

Transformational Leadership refers to an approach to leading by enhancing motivation, morale, and performance of followers through various mechanisms. They challenge employees with a vision and a strategy to achieve that vision. They motivate employees to identify with organizational goals. They offer individual consideration by meeting the needs of employees. They stimulate employee creativity by offering a safe platform to share ideas that promote change. They inspire employees to achieve goals by providing them with a vision. They are positive role models, providing a shared vision as well as relevance of achievement. They offer compassionate leadership, intellectual stimulation, motivation and charismatic leadership. They act as a mentor, show empathy and compassion, encourage personal growth and professional development. They explain the relevance of changes, lead by example, and represent the organization’s culture and mission (Boundless, 2015).

Active Listening Skills

Individualized consideration refers to the degree to which leaders attend to employee needs, mentor employees, and listen to employee concerns. This includes creating interpersonal connections with employees, showing compassion and empathy for and discussing the needs of employees on an individual basis, and encouraging both personal growth and professional development of employees. They show optimism and relevance regarding goals, motivating the energy that drives employees toward goal achievement. Transformational leaders communicate an understandable, engaging, powerful, precise, vision that encourages optimism regarding the future. They create trust and confidence in employees. They offer positive feedback and give employees a sense of self-confidence (Boundless, 2015).

Promoting Change Tasks

Transformational leaders promote intellectual stimulation, innovation, and creativity. They challenge employees to step outside their comfort zones. They provide safe conditions for sharing ideas and experimentation. They problem-solve innovatively and inspire critical thinking regarding changes that can improve working conditions. They challenge employees to rise above the status quo, encourage creativity and innovation, and take risks to achieve goals. They link individual employees and organizational goals by fostering a strong sense of purpose. They inspire employees toward improvement and help them to excel. They foster commitment by promoting a broad vision, leading by example, exhibiting commitment to goals, and representing the organization (Boundless, 2015).


Boundless. (2015). Key Behaviors of Transformational Leaders. Boundless Management.

Retrieved from



Cawsey, T., Deszca, G. & Ingols, C. (2012). Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented

Toolkit, (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Britannica. (2014). Motivation. Retrieved from: