By: Jessica Manzano 4th Period Mrs.Thorpe



The basic particle from which all elements are made.

There are four structure in an atom.

  • Neutron- no charge
  • Proton- Positive charge
  • Electron- negative charge
  • Nucleus- core of the atom

Neutron- a small particle in the nucleus of the atom with no electrical charge

Proton- small positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom

Electron-tiny negatively charge particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom

Nucleus-central core of an atom contains protons and usually neutrons

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A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.

Example of an element:

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Made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bond

Smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.

Example of a molecule:

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Pure substance made of two or more elements combined

Compounds are combined in a set of ratio, and are difficult to separate.

When Combined they form a new property.

Examples of compounds:

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Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Change-

Makes the substance look different but it is still the same substance


  • cutting paper
  • shaping clay
  • chopping vegetables

Chemical Change-

Changes the substance into something else


  • burning wood
  • baking cookies
  • cooking an egg

Difference Between Physical and Chemical Change

Physical change in a substance does not change what the substance is, in a Chemical change where there is a chemical reaction a new substance is formed and energy is either given off or absorbed.

Endothermic and Exothermic


A change in which energy is taken in


  • melting ice


A change in which energy is given off


  • freezing ice

States of Matter


A state of matter that has a definite shape and size


A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume


A state of matter with no definite shape or size

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Particles in Each State


Particles may jiggle but usually do not move from place to place


Particles vibrate, move around and slide past each other


Particles vibrate and move freely at high speeds
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Substances for Each State


  • wood
  • ice
  • gold


  • water
  • milk
  • coffee


  • oxygen
  • hydrogen
  • carbon dioxide

How Matter Changes

Solid to Gas - Sublimation

Solid to Liquid - Melting

Liquid to Gas - Vaporization

Liquid to Solid - Freezing

Gas to Liquid - Condensation

Gas to Solid - Deposition

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How Energy Relates to Matter Changing State


Heat decides the state of matter adding heat or taking off heat brings in change of state

How Energy Makes Matter Change-

Solid to Liquid - Melting Process (Solid taking up heat changes to Liquid)

Liquid to Solid - Freezing Process (Liquid losing heat to surrounding cools off to form Solid)

Liquid to Gas - Evaporation (Water taking up heat from surroundings changes to Gas)

Gas to Liquid - Condensation (One throws steam on cold surface steam or gas loses heat to surface and changes to liquid)

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