Chemistry

By: Jessica Manzano 4th Period Mrs.Thorpe

Atoms

Atoms-

The basic particle from which all elements are made.

There are four structure in an atom.

  • Neutron- no charge
  • Proton- Positive charge
  • Electron- negative charge
  • Nucleus- core of the atom

Neutron- a small particle in the nucleus of the atom with no electrical charge

Proton- small positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom

Electron-tiny negatively charge particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom

Nucleus-central core of an atom contains protons and usually neutrons

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Elements

Element-

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.

Example of an element:

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Molecules

Molecules-

Made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bond


Smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.

Example of a molecule:

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Compounds

Compound-

Pure substance made of two or more elements combined


Compounds are combined in a set of ratio, and are difficult to separate.

When Combined they form a new property.

Examples of compounds:

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Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Change-

Makes the substance look different but it is still the same substance

Examples:

  • cutting paper
  • shaping clay
  • chopping vegetables

Chemical Change-

Changes the substance into something else

Examples:

  • burning wood
  • baking cookies
  • cooking an egg

Difference Between Physical and Chemical Change

Physical change in a substance does not change what the substance is, in a Chemical change where there is a chemical reaction a new substance is formed and energy is either given off or absorbed.

Endothermic and Exothermic

Endothermic-

A change in which energy is taken in

Example:

  • melting ice

Exothermic-

A change in which energy is given off

Example:

  • freezing ice

States of Matter

Solid-

A state of matter that has a definite shape and size

Liqiud-

A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume

Gas-

A state of matter with no definite shape or size

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Particles in Each State

Solid-

Particles may jiggle but usually do not move from place to place

Liquid-

Particles vibrate, move around and slide past each other

Gas-

Particles vibrate and move freely at high speeds
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Substances for Each State

Solid-

  • wood
  • ice
  • gold

Liquid-

  • water
  • milk
  • coffee

Gas-

  • oxygen
  • hydrogen
  • carbon dioxide

How Matter Changes

Solid to Gas - Sublimation


Solid to Liquid - Melting


Liquid to Gas - Vaporization


Liquid to Solid - Freezing


Gas to Liquid - Condensation


Gas to Solid - Deposition

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How Energy Relates to Matter Changing State

Energy-

Heat decides the state of matter adding heat or taking off heat brings in change of state

How Energy Makes Matter Change-

Solid to Liquid - Melting Process (Solid taking up heat changes to Liquid)


Liquid to Solid - Freezing Process (Liquid losing heat to surrounding cools off to form Solid)


Liquid to Gas - Evaporation (Water taking up heat from surroundings changes to Gas)


Gas to Liquid - Condensation (One throws steam on cold surface steam or gas loses heat to surface and changes to liquid)

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