Slavery in the 1800's
Made up of-
- Prosperous bankers
- Lived in elegant homes with running water, furnishings, and household conveniences.
- (concerned with status)
-Who was invited and how?
NY leaders of the upper class formed a committee to decide what the wealthy class interests where, who was wealthy, and who was invited. It was meant to keep the wealthy class pure.
Living Conditions -
- Neighborhoods had crime, filth, disease
- Crowed small apartments
- Damp cellars
- No sewer
- Kids mostly affected
- Many held there head high and hoped for a better future.
- Many believed the market economy could lead them to better opportunities.
The Middle Class
Made up of-
- Prosperous Artisans
- Simple but comfortable homes
- Bathing Stands/ bowls
- Iron cook stoves
- Lamps & Rugs
- The middle class had enough money to buy there basic necessities, available by the market revolutions such as food, and clothes. Instead of producing them themselves.
Male Roles in the middle class
- Work outside of the house
- Earn money to support the family
Woman's roles in the middle class
- Stay home
- Care for children
- Do housework
- No pay
- " Cult of true womanhood"
Children roles in the middle class
- Didn't have to work
- Sent to school (boys more often)
- Stayed at home longer
The Rise of Trade Unions
- Many workers lived in poverty
- Some families would have to work the whole day just to survive
- By 1832 in New England 2/5 workers where children
- Children faced grim working conditions
- Some organized unions for better working conditions
- Labor leaders held a convention in 1834 and founded ( National Trades Union)
- 1838 President Jackson gave some federal workers a 10 hour day
- Strike ( Organized more than 100 during the 1830s)
- Most states passed the 10 hour workday law
Growth in Immigration-
- The labor force grew when newcomers poured into the country
- They wanted equality, land, and work
- Largest group
- They came because of hunger , poverty, not enough land to go around, disease wiped out potato crop.
- 1/8 people died of starvation or disease
- Gathered money or a steamship ticket
- Few could afford land
- Crowed in slums, and compete for jobs
- Men helped build canals, railroads, mined coal, and unloaded fright.
- Women cared for children, cleaned houses, washed and mended clothes, worked in factories.
- Faced prejudice
- Bad living conditions and disease
- Created own comminties
- Ran local gov't
- Irish Politics helped poor and working class Irish immigrants.
- 2nd largest group
- Most were protestant, a third were roman catholic, and some were Jewish
- came for economic opportunity
- most men became bakers, brewers, butchers, cabinet makers, cigar makers, machinists, and tailors.
- most women worked at home, or on the farm and some would work in family shops, or business that served German immigrants
- Most had remarkable success
The Nativist Response
- Some protested the arrival of immigrants
- Viewed them as politically corrupt and socially inferior
- Some urged a restriction of the right to vote and hold public office
- Star spangled banner ( support only native born protestants for public office)