PRINCIPLES AND ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

SUMIKA KAWAI AND KAILYN LEE

What is the purpose of the Principles and Elements of Design?

Using these principles and elements of design can help lead to the creation of great designs. The elements are the tools accessible while designing and the principles are the guidelines to success of one's composition. They go hand in hand: the elements help you complete the principle rules to produce the best work. The main purpose of principles and designs is to use the right combinations of design elements while still following the criteria of design principles to effectively communicate visual meanings and messages.


The Elements of Design Chart

Line: two types; linear line made with pen or brush and edge created when shapes meet
Shape: self contained designed area of geometric form.
Direction:
all lines have direction - horizontal, vertical or oblique.
Size: relationship of area of one shape occupied by another.
Texture:
surface quality of the shape, can be physical or visual (rough, smooth, hard, glossy, etc.)
Color:
also known as hue. There is primary, secondary, tertiary, saturated, and compound colors.
Value:
lightness or darkness of a color (also known as tone)

Source: http://www.johnlovett.com/test.htm



The Principles of Design

Balance: the feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc.
Harmony: bring together a composition with alike subjects
Contrast: change in value creating a visual discord, shows differences between shapes through emphasizing.
Movement: "visual flow"; can be created in value pattern through lighter and darker area placements
Rhythm: elements reoccurring regularly in a pattern
Unity: relating design elements to the idea being expressed
Emphasis: refers to created center of interest

Source: http://www.incredibleart.org/files/elements2.htm