USA Yesterday, Today, & Tomorrow

Carolina Bologna, Editor-in-Chief

CHILD LABOR

Has child labor really been abolished?

USA - In 1890 the census revealed that more than one million children, ten to fifteen years old, were hired in American industries. By 1910 that number increased to two million. Industries employed children as young as five or six to work as many as eighteen to twenty hours a day. Industrialization, however, contributed to the need for child labor reforms. As a matter of fact, progressive reformers believed that child labor harmed both children and society and their goal was to eliminate children participation in industry. Bans were created in order to keep children from working. The first Federal agency dedicated to the welfare of children was the Children’s Bureau: it has a long history of addressing some of the Nation’s most pressing social issues. By 1929 every state had provided children under fourteen from working. However, not all the states enforced the laws. For example, only thirty-six states had laws that prohibited factory workers under sixteen from working at night or for more than eight hours per day.

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WASHINGTON AS SEEN BY THE TRUSTS

"What a Funny Little Government"

John D. Rockefeller is pictured in this satirical cartoon, which was illustrated by Horace Taylor in 1899. In the cartoon, Rockefeller is holding the White House and the Treasury Department on his palm. His own wealth and power were so great that they could make little the resources of the federal government.

Rockefeller was a very important industrial tycoon. During the late nineteenth century the power of the "oil empire" controlled a very large portion of the businesses. He was pictured as a very powerful person with the power to over overwhelm the government. Rockefeller richness, however, came from paying his employees extremely low wages and from controlling the oil market, gaining also the power to set higher prices, which, as a consequence, increased his profits.

The smoke in the background of the image is coming from the capital of the United States, which is portrayed as becoming an oil refinery. As a matter of fact, it can be said that he and the industrial tycoons of that age turned the capitol and the white house into a factory, demonstrating the power that many big businesses held over government.

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IS CHINA'S ECONOMICAL POWER IN DANGER?

New Economical Alliances for the U.S.

President Obama's trip to India was seen by the Chinese government as more than a simple event. As a matter of fact, China felt that the visit was a message from the United States saying that they were going to change their economical alliances. China and India have been rivals for a long time for economic power and strategic control in Asia, and this rivalry is likely to continue even more harsh since the US misjudged China's power. Indeed, the "Middle Kingdom"'s economy is shrinking and industrial activities and interest rate cuts bring to the conclusion that China has already seen its economical peak and cannot go back to it. On the other hand, India's economic growth is pretty evident and shortly it will bring the country to outpace its rival. China has already seen its golden age, now it is time for the US to move onto new and better alliances.

THE U.S. WANTS YOU!

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In 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces. In order to gain support for the war effort, US officials hired artists that created posters that would build public support and increase recruitment. The poster that pictures Uncle Sam pointing his index and saying "I Want YOU for the U.S. Army" wanted to create a sense of duty into people's minds, eventually leading them to register in the military.

FOR SALE

Antique Porcelain Footed Mug with Gilded Age Gold Beads

Selling price: $45.50
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1921 Pop-up Toaster: your sliced bread will not burn anymore!

Selling price: $27.99
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WANTED

Collector looking for WWI German Luger semi-automatic pistol dated 1916

Price: $150
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Lady looking for Antique and Vintage Gilded Age Dining to add to her collection of porcelain plates

Price: $100

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SERVICES

Progressive Era Meat Inspection Service: No More Harmful Products

Price: $5 per 30 minutes of inspection

Gig Carriage Transportation Service for Workers During Heatless Mondays

Price: $10 each ride

POST WWI

How American Presindents Dealt With The End of The Great War

The postwar saw two presidencies taking place: Harding's and Coolidge's.

President Harding's postwar economic vision was his campaign slogan "less government in business and more business in government" by cutting the federal budget and reducing the taxes of the wealthy. Harding also helped farmers by raising the costs of foreign grown farm products. The Ohio Gang, old friends of Harding, who were convicted of taking bribes and the Harding's Secretary of the Interior was convicted in the Teapot Dome scandal, which allowed oil drilling on federal land, distressed the president. After his death, Harding's administration is remembered for corruption and failures.

Coolidge presidency, however, differed a lot from his predecessor. President Coolidge's reputation of honesty helped him in dealing with Harding's scandals and eventually allowed him to get rid of suspects of corruption. His presidency was characterized by his faith in the power of business, which, according to him, would provide America's growth. Moreover, in his view, businesses would also fund charities to help society and they would help limiting the government. During his presidency, Coolidge worked to stop congressional plans to help farmers and also worked to weaken industry regulations.

Always during the postwar, Germany was asked to pay the Allied Powers (which included the United States) reparations, but the country was unable to do so, therefore the Allies could not pay their debts either. The Washington Naval Conference took other precautions after the end of the war: they were organized in order to head off arms races and therefore to avoid the construction of more and more weapons that would advantage a country in case of new conflicts. The conference also led to agreements on issues that threatened the world's peace, which included plans to avoid competition for the control of China. Finally, the Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement that involved more than 60 nations which outlawed war. Eventually this agreement revealed not to be trustworthy.

"IT GIRL"

Clara Bow

Born in July 29, 1905 Brooklyn, New York, Clara Bow, aka the "It Girl" of the 1920's, was the most famous of the flappers during the 1920's.

Clara Bow had "It" whatever it was. Beauty, magnetism, charm, cuteness. She was born poor, but at 16 she won a beauty pageant and was discovered by Hollywood agents. Her mother, jealous of her looks and success, tried to stab her to death shortly thereafter, therefore Clara ran away.

By 21 she had won the title of the "It" girl of the 1920's and starred in several movie. She became known as "The Hottest Jazz Baby in Films" and her personal life matched her blazing onscreen personality. Bow came to personify the Roaring Twenties.

BABE RUTH

George Herman Ruth Jr. was born on February 6, 1895 in Baltimore, Maryland. He was an American baseball outfielder and pitcher who played 22 seasons in Major League Baseball from 1914 to 1935. Upon seeing George Jr. for the first time, the Orioles players referred to him as “Jack’s newest babe”, and thus the most famous nickname in American sports history was born. Thereafter, George Herman Ruth Jr. was known as the Babe.

KANSAS

"The Sunflower State"

From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe (NM). Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.

TEXAS

"The Lone Star State"

In 1900, Texas received the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane. The Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on September 8, 1900, in the city of Galveston, Texas. It had estimated winds of 145 miles per hour at landfall, making it the deadliest hurricane in US history.

One year later, on January 10, 1901, the first major Oil Well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "Oil Boom" transformed Texas after the destruction caused by the hurricane one year earlier.

NEW YORK

"The Empire State"

New York had closer ties to the war than much of the rest of the country. The terrific amount of maritime traffic alone employed thousands of New Yorkers and exposed to danger non-combatants like the men of the Merchant Marine.

ALASKA

"The Last Frontier"

Although many improvements to airplanes were made in the following years, it was not until after World War I that significant aviation developments occurred in Alaska.

In July of 1924, Alaskan pilot Noel Wien founded Alaska's first scheduled airline at Fairbanks. That was also the year that Wien made the first non-stop flight from Fairbanks to Anchorage. He later was the first pilot to fly from Fairbanks to Nome, to fly across the Arctic Circle, to fly from Alaska to Siberia, and to fly an injured person to a hospital.