Cites convention

GCSE Geography:Battle for the biosphere

What is Cites?

Cites stands for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora and it is an international agreement between governments. The aim of Cites is to make sure that the trading of animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Cites was formed in 1960 and at the time it was rare for international areas throughout the world to discuss the conservation trade for wildlife purposes. The trade of animals and plants and animals is really diverse, including wildlife products derived from them such as food products, exotic leather, goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicine.

How does the Cites convention work?

Cites subjects international trade of specimens of certain species. This includes all import, export, re-export and introduction to the sea of species has to be authorised through a licensing system. Each animals that is traded is separated into three categories. Appendices 1 are animals threatened with extinction and trade of species in this category are only permitted in exceptional circumstances. Animals and plants in the category Appendices 2 are not threatened with extinction, but the trade of flora and fauna in this category must be tightly controlled in case this threatens their survival. Fauna and flora in appendix three are protected in at least one country and they have asked Cites organisation for their protection. Anyone who is planning to import or export any Cites species must contact Cites Management Authorities of that country.

Below is what the Cites organisation do for their protection(extracted from the website)

Appendix-I specimens

  1. An import permit issued by the Management Authority of the State of import is required. This may be issued only if the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes and if the import will be for purposes that are not detrimental to the survival of the species. In the case of a live animal or plant, the Scientific Authority must be satisfied that the proposed recipient is suitably equipped to house and care for it.
  2. An export permit or re-export certificate issued by the Management Authority of the State of export or re-export is also required.

    An export permit may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained; the trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species; and an import permit has already been issued.

    A re-export certificate may be issued only if the specimen was imported in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and, in the case of a live animal or plant, if an import permit has been issued.

    In the case of a live animal or plant, it must be prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

Appendix-II specimens

  1. An export permit or re-export certificate issued by the Management Authority of the State of export or re-export is required.

    An export permit may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained and if the export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species.

    A re-export certificate may be issued only if the specimen was imported in accordance with the Convention.
  2. In the case of a live animal or plant, it must be prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.
  3. No import permit is needed unless required by national law.

In the case of specimens introduced from the sea, a certificate has to be issued by the Management Authority of the State into which the specimens are being brought, for species listed in Appendix I or II. For further information, see the text of the Convention, Article III, paragraph 5 and Article IV, paragraph 6.

Appendix-III specimens

  1. In the case of trade from a State that included the species in Appendix III, an export permit issued by the Management Authority of that State is required. This may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained and, in the case of a live animal or plant, if it will be prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.
  2. In the case of export from any other State, a certificate of origin issued by its Management Authority is required.
  3. In the case of re-export, a re-export certificate issued by the State of re-export is required

Where have the Cites meetings been held?

Bangkok (Thailand), 3-14 March 2013

Doha (Qatar), 13-25 March 2010

The Hague (the Netherlands), 3-15 June 2007

Bangkok (Thailand), 2-14 October 2004

Santiago (Chile), 3-15 November 2002

Gigiri (Kenya), 10-20 April 2000

Harare (Zimbabwe), 9-20 June 1997

Fort Lauderdale (United States of America), 7-18 November 1994

Kyoto (Japan), 2-13 March 1992

Lausanne (Switzerland), 9-20 October 1989

Ottawa (Canada), 12-24 July 1987

Buenos Aires (Argentina), 22 April - 3 May 1985

Gaborone (Botswana), 19-30 April 1983

New Delhi (India), 25 February - 8 March 1981

San José (Costa Rica), 19-30 March 1979

Bern (Switzerland), 2-6 November 1976

What are the goals of the convention?

- biodiversity-related and other conventions;
- international environment organizations;
- international organizations and agreements dealing with natural resources;
- international trade and development organizations;
- international organizations dealing with law enforcement; and
- international financial mechanisms and oth