Defining Climate

Annual Averages and Variations

Understanding and predicting such climatic changes are the basic goals of climatology. Climatology is the study of Earth's climate and the factors that cause past, present, and future climatic changes.

Cause of Climate

There are several reasons for such climatic variations, including differences in latitude, topography, closeness of lakes and oceans, availability of moisture, global wind patterns, ocean currents, and air masses.

Topographic Effects

Water heats up and cools down more rapidly that of land.

Temperatures in the lower atmosphere generally decrease with altitude.

Climates often differ depending on the side of the mountain you are standing as well.

Air Masses

Two of the main causes of weather are the movement and interaction of air masses.

Average weather conditions in and near regions of air-formation are similar to those exhibited by the air masses themselves.

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