Psychology: Study of Human Behavior
By Dominic, CJ, Justin, and Gregorio
The Roots of Psychology
Psychology is the things you hear, see and feel everyday, that exist in ur mind and the external world. It can be traced back to Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, developing an elaborate theory of what they termed the psuchẽ.
The father of modern psychology was not Sigmund Freud but rather Wilhelm Wundt, a German Psychologist , who developed the first Psych lab with his first students in Germany. What they observed is very different to what we are studying today, but their approach was similar to what we practice now.
How did Psychology develop?
- Psychology has origins in both philosophy, which proposed many of the important questions and physiology, which provided the important tools for careful, scientific examination of these questions.
- The establishment of Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory at the university of of Leipzig in 1879 marks the formal beginning of psychology as a scientific discipline.
- Wundt employed the methods of introspection and experimental self-observation to pursue what he considered to be the task of psychology. A systematic study of the structure of the conscious adult mind.
- Edward Titchener, who brought Wundt’s brand of psychology to the United States, introduced the label of structuralism to describe his attempt to develop a kind of mental chemistry by breaking experience down into its basic elements of structures.
- Structuralism soon gave way to the practical psychology of William James, who emphasized the functional, practical nature of the mind. His conception of psychology’s proper task became known as functionalism
- During the period when psychology was struggling to become more scientific and objective, Sigmund Freud traveled to a different rod as he developed his subjective psychoanalytic approach with its emphasis on the unconscious mind and repressed irrational urges and drives.
- In the first few decades of the twentieth century. a new force in psychology called behaviorism emerged. This approach, championed by John B. Watson, defined the task of psychology as one of the simply observing the relationship between environmental events (stimuli) and an organism’s response to them. Modern behaviorism continues to be a powerful force with psychology today.
The Scope of Psychology
Psychology studies the behavior of both humans and other animals.
There are two sides to behavior: the side that can be observed directly and the side that is unobservable. Psychology studies both of these sides in great depth.
Why study animals?
While most people think of psychology as the study of human behavior, it also involves studying animal behavior.
There are five reasons to use animals as subjects.
1. Animals provide simpler models
2. Experimenters have greater control
3. Ethical reasons
5. To study animal behavior
Fields in Psychology
Studies mind and mental functions including learning, memory, attention, perception, reasoning, language, conceptual development, and decision making.
Explores how children and adults change over time, and how
Looks at human behavior as influenced by other people and the social context in which this occurs.
Explores the uniqueness of the individual and describes the key elements that provide the foundation for human personalities.
Involves conducting extensive research, using various methods to determine the nature and cause of behavior.
Studies the relationship between psychological processes and behavior, looking at things such as brain structures and processes.
Involved in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems, including developmental disorders, substance abuse, and behavior disorders.
Involves the study and application of learning and teaching methods, conducting research on ways to improve curriculum and and teacher training.
Uses psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for both employees and management.
Focuses on the creation of optimal relationships among people, the machines they operate, and the environments in which they work.
The growing body of data on the interaction between physical and psychological health factors has led to the emergence of a dynamic new area of specialization known as health psychology.
Focused on understanding the factors leading to self-fulfillment and happiness.
Works hand in hand with legal, court and correctional systems, assisting police in a variety of ways from developing personality profiles to looking at family conflict.
AI and Connectionism
Researchers seek to develop models that simulate a variety of complex human cognitive processes such as perceiving stimuli, solving problems, learning, and making decisions.
A recent approach to both investigating and explaining human behavior in terms of natural selection.
AI and Connectionism
The Goals of Psychology
The three main goals of psychology are understanding, predicting and controlling behavior.
-our understanding of behavioral phenomena is expressed in the language of theories. Theories are tentative attempts to organize and fit into a logical framework all relevant data or facts regarding certain phenomena-Good psychological theories generate hypotheses, which are assumption on how people should react under certain conditions.