Reference Examples

A 'How to Guide' to correct referencing

Why bother?

When using the words, thoughts or images of others, summarising, paraphrasing or using quotations you must acknowledge everything that you use.


Why it's important:
- to support your ideas and arguments

- to show the variety and breadth of your research

- to help the reader trace your source material

- to acknowledge your sources and avoid plagiarism

- to meet the assessment criteria - done correctly, it can get you a higher mark!

Some important definitions...

Points/Style rules to note:

Author(s)

An Author can be an organisation as well as an individual(s)

Use their last name, followed by their initial(s) e.g. Thomas, M. L.


Editor(s), Caller(s), Interviewer(s), Lyricist(s), Photographer(s), Speaker(s) etc.

Follow the same style rule as above: last name, followed by their initial(s)


Page(s)

Use p. for a single page, pp. for two or more pages e.g. p.4, pp.4-5

Adverts

Advert: billboard

Author (Year) Title of the advert [Billboard at ...]. Day month.


- Day month is the date viewed e.g. 28 March

- [Billboard at] e.g. [Billboard at Haden Way, Birmingham]


Advert: magazine

Title of the Magazine (Year) 'Title of the advert' [Advertisement]. Date, page(s).


Advert: newspaper

Title of the Newspaper (Year) 'Title of the advert' [Advertisement]. Day month, page(s).


Advert: online

Author (Year) Title of the advert [Advertisement]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)


Advert: television

Author (Year) Title of the advert [Advertisement on ...]. Day month.


- [Advertisement on ...] e.g. [Advertisement on Channel 4 Television]

Blogs

Author (Year) 'Title of the blog message', Title of the website, day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Books

Reference online books in the same way as the printed version


Author (Year) Title of the book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.


- use Edition only when it is not the first e.g. 4th edn.


Book: chapter/part in an edited book

Author of the chapter (Year) 'Title of the chapter', in Editor (ed.) Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, page(s).


Book: editor(s)

Editor (ed.) (Year) Title of the book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.


- use (eds.) for more than one editor


Book: multiple authors

Author, Author and Author (Year) Title of the book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.


Book: no author

Title of the book (Year) Place of publication: Publisher.

Emails

Sender (Year) Email to ..., day month.


- Email to ... e.g. Email to Steve McCabe

Exhibitions

Title of the exhibition (Year) [Exhibition]. Location. Date(s) of exhibition.


- Location e.g. Tate Modern

- Date(s) of exhibition e.g. 13 February 2014-26 May 2014

Facebook

Author (Year) Title of the page, day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- use the day month of when the message was posted

- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Films

Title of the film (Year) Directed by ... [Film]. Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


- Directed by e.g. Directed by Wes Anderson

Government Publications

Online

Government Department (Year) Title of the publication. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Graffiti

Title or description (Year) [Graffiti] Location. Day month.


- Location e.g. Fazeley Street, Birmingham

- Day month is the date viewed e.g. 28 March

Handouts from your teacher

Teacher (Year) 'Title of the handout', Module code: Module title. Swanshurst School. Unpublished.

Interviews

Interviewer (Year) Interview with ..., day month.


- Interview with ... e.g. Interview with Steve McCabe

Journal articles

Reference online journal articles in the same way as the printed version


Author (Year) 'Title of the article', Title of the Journal, volume(part, month, season or date), page(s).


- volume number(part, month ...) e.g. 14(3), 14(September)

- if there is no volume number, use (month), (season) or (date) e.g. (Spring), (6 May)

Leaflets

Author (Year) Title of the leaflet, [Leaflet obtained in ...], date.


- if there is no (Year), use (no date)

- [Leaflet obtained in ...] e.g. [Leaflet obtained in Brook Birmingham]

- date is when you obtained the leaflet e.g. 28 March 2014

Letters

Sender (Year) Letter to ..., day month.


- Letter to ... e.g. Letter to Steve McCabe

Lyrics

Lyricist (Year) Title of the song. Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Newspaper Articles

Reference online newspapers in the same way as the printed version


Author (Year) 'Title of the article', Title of the Newspaper (Section), day month, page(s).


- use (Section) only if it is not the main e.g. (Society), (G2)


Newspaper article: no author

Title of the Newspaper (Year) 'Title of the article', day month, page(s).

Photographs

Online

Photographer (Year) Title of the photograph. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Plays

Title of the play by ... (Year) Directed by ... [Location. Day month].


- Title of the play by ... e.g. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck

- Directed by ... e.g. Directed by Roxana Silbert

- [Location. Day month] e.g. [Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. 28 March]

Podcasts

Author (Year) Title of the podcast [Podcast]. Day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Radio Programmes

Title of the Programme (Year) Name of the Channel, day month.


Radio programme: online

Title of the Programme (Year) Name of the Channel, day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- use the day month of the original transmission

- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Sacred Texts

The Bible

Book of the Bible Chapter: verse, Holy Bible. Version of the Bible.


- do not italicise the name of the book


The Qur'an

Qur'an Surah: verse (Year) Translated by ... Place of publication: Publisher.


- do not italicise the name of the book

- Translated by ... e.g. Translated by Abdel Haleem


The Torah

Torah Book Chapter: verse.


- do not italicise the name of the book

Skype

Speaker (Year) Skype conversation with ..., day month.


- Skype conversation with ... e.g. Skype conversation with Shabana Mahmood

Telephone conversations

Caller (Year) Telephone conversation with ..., day month.


- Telephone conversation with ... e.g. Telephone conversation with Shabana Mahmood

Television programme

'Title of the episode' (Year) Title of the Programme, Series number, episode number. Name of the Channel, day month.


TV Programme: no episode

Title of the Programme (Year) Name of the Channel, day month.


TV Programme: online

'Title of the episode' (Year) Title of the Programme, Series number, episode number, Name of the Channel, day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- use the day month of the original transmission

- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Twitter

Author (Year) Day month. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- use the Day month when the message was posted e.g. 28 March

- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

Webpages

Author (Year) Title of the webpage. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)


Webpage: no author

Title of the webpage (Year) Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Webpage: no author, title or date

URL (no date) (Accessed: date).

YOU WOULD BE WISE TO CONSIDER WHETHER THIS IS A SUITABLE SOURCE TO USE FOR YOUR COURSEWORK

Wikis

'Title of the Wiki article' (Year) Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


- (Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 March 2014)

YouTube Videos

Author (Year) Title of the video. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).