Bone Tissue

Brianna Reeves

Structure and Function

Bone structure can be organized in two categories:

1. Compact:

  • noticeably smooth, dense, and homogeneous
  • provides support and protection
  • consists of osteons

2. Spongy:

  • looks like flat or needle-like pieces
  • thin bone layers called trabeculae make up this type of bone (no osteons) and have red bone marrow between the spaces

The 6 Functions:

  1. support
  2. protection
  3. assistance in movement
  4. mineral homeostasis (storage and release)
  5. production of blood cells
  6. storage of chemical energy

How do bone structure and function collaborate?

  • Through the establishment of long and short bones
  • Long bones: compact and spongy bone structure aids in shaping the body as well as providing movement when working with muscles
  • Short bones: their cube-like shape helps with movement without needs of support

Where can bone tissue be found?

Considering bones are necessary for many bodily functions, they can be found practically everywhere. Some specific locations are:

  • the head (cranium)- helps to protect brain
  • the kneecap (patella)- helps to join the femur to the tibia thus assisting in walking, running, or other physical activities.
  • metacarpal bones (phalanges/ fingers)- help with hand movement, support, and shape.

Bone Tissue in various Organ Systems

Fun Fact: Bones make up 18% of human body weight

Additional components that support bone tissue

  1. osteoblasts: bone-forming cells
  2. osteon: repeating units that make up compact bone; made up of a matrix consisting of: calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions
  3. trabeculae: thin bone columns making up spongy bone; bone cells of these columns receive nourishment as blood passes over the cavity


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