AFTER 1866

History AS - Unit 1


  • replacement of liberal Glovnin by Dmitrii Tolstoy as minister fr public instruction
  • promotion of Konstantin Paklen - minister of Justice
  • zemstva's powers over education reduced + church control restored in rural schools
  • gymnazii - must follow traditional curriculum (only these are allowed to progress to University)
  • critical thought subjects forced away - education - way of enforcing tsarist control; maths, latin etc encouraged + ban on extra curricular
  • harsher policy in ethnic minorities; triggered by rebellion in Poland - non-Russians were a danger to the Empire (went against Russification) - more hostile attitude (Poles, Finns, Jews etc.)
  • poor harvest - famine
  • searches/arrests stepped up
  • further attempts to kill tsar
  • third section - abolished + powers - regular police


  • zemstvas remained in some power over education
  • church restored to a position of prominence in rural schools
  • stepped up third section/judicial system continually enforced
  • new industrial reforms kept
  • allowed Intelligentsia to be able to speak more freely
  • military reforms kept
  • financial reforms kept


  • attempted assassination; Intelligentsia were dissatisfied with new reforms - too much freedom
  • Polish Revolt - non-Russians were dangerous - pressure from ethnic minorities
  • son dead and wife very ill (tuberculosis) - mistress (Catarina Dolgoruki) - more distanced from blood relations
  • reforms had not fulfilled expectations



  • educated class - spreading of new ideas
  • promoted welfare, education, liberty; wanted to reform autocracy
  • ability to easily persuade people
  • protest leaflets - increasingly radical/secret groups - disturbances broke out
  • size/influence grew
  • violence towards policemen - attempts to assassinate tsar
  • undermined government control


  • popular among university students
  • felt better society was created when current society would be wiped away
  • influenced by Western ideas; Charles Darwin + Communism
  • spread ideas through pamphlets; debated/criticized regime - more practical approaches would encourage uprising
  • blamed for shops being set on fire
  • led to Populism


  • OR 'Narodniks'
  • mainly young noble/wealthy middle class people
  • compassionate towards peasants' poverty
  • influenced by Alexander Herxen; Russian form should be based upon the Mir
  • Populists were often turned in by the peasants; ignorant - loyalty to the Tsar
  • peasants blamed landowners/nobility for their bad living
  • by autumn 1874, 1,600 Populists had been arrested

Land + Liberty

  • originated from Populists; more radical + well-organised
  • established in 1877
  • helped peasants/subtly encouraged uprisings - put Bakunin's ideas into action
  • assassinated Prince Kropotkin + General Mezerntsev - widely supported


  • felt no state was needed - 'free association'
  • 1848 - Czech Rebellion - Mikhail Bakunin; famous revolutionary
  • 1849 - many joined Dresden Uprising
  • 1857 - many joined League of Peace + Freedom (activists + revolutionaries across Europe)
  • Tsar exiled Bakunin BUT supporters were a minority

The People's Will

  • formed in October 1879
  • favoured terrorism/violent methods; important in achieving political objectives - against government family members
  • planted a spy in Tsar's third section - undermined government; assassinated officials
  • aimed to overturn autocratic regime; introduce freedom of expression - compassion for peasants
  • 1879 - declared that Tsar had to be removed
  • attempted assassinations; bomb under wrong train + attempt to blow up St Petersburg bridge + mine below Tsar's dining room


  • Democratic - rebelled against autocratic regime
  • 1898 - Social Democratic Workers' Party
  • believed in superiority of peasants; new social structure
  • wanted to improve life for working class - individual freedom
  • wanted income to be based on number of hours worked
  • included 'The Combat Detachment' - terrorist gang
  • weak - economic distress BUT gained popularity during anger/unrest among peasants



  • Primitive Communism - men were equal - most successful gains power
  • Imperialism - one strong man/emperor owned all - exchanged land for military services (when threatened)
  • Feudalism - owned by aristocracy - exploited peasants - sell surplus of food for profit
  • Capitalism - political power obtained by bourgeoiosie - exploited workers - became politically aware
  • Socialism - dictatorship of proletariat - redistributed food/goods fairly - equality prioritises
  • Communism - everyone joins for common good - money/government not needed - World Peace


  • 'winning' peasants - benefited from emancipation - produced grain to sell
  • aimed to ensure they were entirely out of debt - ability to export goods; sustainable surplus - acquiring more land
  • tricked less fortunate peasants - bought out impoverished neighbours - able to earn income
  • resented high taxes; had own self-governing peasant banks
  • poorer peasants were taken advantage of


  • 1 March 1881
  • failure to carry through wide-scale/effective reform - had refused redistribution of land to peasantry
  • disappointed hopes; Emancipation of Serfs, creation of Zemstva, more liberal university system
  • encouraged radical opponents
  • Alexander II became more repressive; police forces strengthened + activities of Third Section stepped up
  • people felt only violent action would achieve change

Significance of Opposition

  • revolutionary thinking; Marxism - alternative ways of organisation (gov. + society)
  • people wanted 'reform from below' rather than from above - limiting absolute power of tsar + advisers
  • radical opposition; Populism - spread into countryside - fearful potential for change
  • humiliation of open trials + hopelessness of secret police; tsarist regime had lost direction + authority
  • hostility of conservative bureaucrats, nobles + landlords - reactionary opposition; tsar relied on them to run the state + maintain stability - more difficult to control --> giving in to right-wing opposition pressure (from 1866) meant his own position was also weakened - failed to fulfil expectations for reform