CHEMISTRY

PERIODIC TABLE

WHAT IS A PERIODIC TABLE?

  • The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties

HOW DO WE READ THE PERIODIC TABLE?

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  • ATOMIC NUMBER: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which is characteristic of a chemical element and determines its place in the periodic table.
  • ELEMENT SYMBOL: an abbreviation or short representation of a chemical element with 1 to 3 letters.
  • ELEMENT NAME: name of the substance composed of singe kind of atom.
  • ATOMIC MASS: the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

HOW IS IT ARRANGED?

  • Elements are arranged in the Periodic Table in order of increasing atomic number.

  • Key groups of elements which can be recognised are metals and non-metals, alkali metals, halogens, noble gases and transition elements. The gaseous elements are generally to be found clustered in the top right corner of the table.

WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF THE TABLE?

  • Groups- vertical columns within the table which will contain elements with similar chemical properties resulting from a common number of electrons in the outer shell

  • Periods- rows of elements arranged with increasing atomic number demonstrating an increasing number of outer electrons and a move from metallic to non-metallic characteristics.

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