Biology

Chapters 4,5,6,7

*Ch. 4 ~ Inheritance, Genes, & Physical Characteristics*

Mendel's Discovery


*Gregor Mendel*- He was interested in patterns of inheritance and began some experiments at the monastery where he resided. His finding have shown that alleles can interact, so can genes. Also that genes may affect more than one characteristic. Gene expression depends on the environment.

**All about DNA, RNA & Sickle Cell**

The following videos are short clips to further your understanding of DNA, RNA & Sickle Cell :)


*DNA Structure and Function*

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_POdWsii7AIWhy

*RNA is Just as Cool as DNA*

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Elo-zX1k8M

*Mutations: The Potential Power of a Small Change*
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GieZ3pk9YVo

*Ch. 5 ~ Cancer*

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*Facts about Cancer*

**How is Cancer Diagnosed?**

-Blood Tests

-Ultrasound

-Biopsy


**Ways to Detect Cancer**

-CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)

-MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)


**How to Prevent Cancer**

-Dont Smoke

-Maintain Balanced Diet, Exercise

-Avoid UV Exposure

-Avoid Excess Alcohol

-Avoid Known Carcinogens

-Get Regular Check-ups

-Chemoprevention-The action of natural or manufactured materials used to prevent or halt cancer development


**Need to Know**

  • Cancer- A disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation
  • Growth Factors- Bind to receptors on the cell
  • Signal Transducers- Activate to relay information
  • Transcription Factors- Activate to regulate gene activity
  • Apotosis- Programmed cell death, cancer cells ignore it
  • Cyst- A fluid-filled sack
  • Melanoma- An invasive and deadly skin cancer
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP)- A rare diorder in which individuals are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and more easily develop skin cancers if they are exposed to sunlight or other sources of (UV) light
  • Tumor- A lump that results from the production of extra cells
  • Tumor Suppressor Genes (TSGs)- Encode for proteins that halt cell division
  • Benign- Harmless
  • Malignant- Cell growth that continues in an uncontrolled manner, resulting in cancer
  • Metastasis- A process by which individual cancer cells leave a tumor, enter the bloodstream, and produce secondary tumors at new sites.
  • Angiogenesis- A process by which successful tumors secrete chemical signals that cause blood vessels to sprout from the circulatory system
  • Cell Cycle- Four distinct phases of cell life: Mitosis, Gap 1(the cell grows), DNA Synthesis, Gap 2 (the cell grows and prepares again for mitosis)
  • Proto-Oncogene- A gene that encodes for a protein that regulates cell division
  • Tumor Suppressor- A gene that encodes for a protein that tells a cell not to divide
  • Oncogene- A gene that tells the cell to divide in the absence of normal instructions to do so
  • Leukemia- A type of blood cell cancer in which in which the tumor suppressor gene is mutated
  • Herceptin- A drug that is used to treat a certain type of breast cancer by binding to the erbB-2 protein and stopping it from triggering cell division
  • Radiation- Energy transmitted as waves or subatomic particles
  • X-ray- A type of relatively high energy radiation
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)- A sexually transmitted virus that is responsible for most of the world's cancers of the genitals and anus
  • Pap Test- A method used to detect cervical cancer by collecting and examining cervical cells
  • Mammogram- A form of X- ray used to detect possible breast cancer
  • Colonoscopy- A procedure used to examine the large intestine, rectum, and anus to screen men and women for colon or rectal cancer
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan- An advanced type of X-ray procedure that provides a more detailed look at internal structures by sending thin X-ray beams at different angles
  • Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI) Scan- A medical imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to visualize the inside of a body
  • Pathologist- A doctor who specializes in the study of disease
  • Radiation Therapy- Radiation delivered either externally or internally to kill cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy- A treatment method using drugs that impair the ability of cells to replicate; these medications may be taken orally or injected directly into the bloodstream
  • Immunotherapy- Treatment that directly targets a cancer or boosts the immune system to make the other cancer therapies more affective
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitor- A drug that stops the growth of blood vessels, inhibiting the ability of tumors to attach to the circularity system and grow
  • Chemoprevention- The action of natural or manufactured materials used to prevent or halt cancer development
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*Cancer Explained*

These short clips will give you a better understanding of what cancer ism how it happens, and the treatment options.


*Cancer Explained*

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwbuW7oK8rk

*The Cell Cycle and Cancer*
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpAa4TWjHQ4

*Ch.6 ~ Reproduction*

*Gender Determination & How Sperm/Eggs are Produced*

Gender is determined by weather the infant received the XX chromosomes (female), or the XY chromosomes (male). To get a further understanding of how the gender of a child is determined watch this short video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DadqEUXf4JU


The reproductive system in men can be easily understood in these short clips

Part 1-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaAa1tvMhgQ

Part 2-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaAa1tvMhgQ


The reproductive system in women can be easily understood in this short clip

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wcf6ViRjYvA


There are many causes for infertility, to name a few- low sperm count, deformed sperm (multiple tails, heads etc.).

*Ch. 7 ~ Plants, Agriculture, & Genetic Engineering*

Too good to be true.....?


Who is Monsanto?

-Monsanto is an international agriculture and biotechnology corporation, with a workforce of approximately 22,000. Monsanto is also one of the most controversial corporations in the world, due to its production of genetically engineered seeds (GMO's), rBGH (bovine growth hormone), and the company’s highly litigious nature. Monsanto is also responsible for manufacturing and selling Aroclors – a trade name for polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, which recent studies show can cause non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Why do most people hate Monsanto?

  1. Impudently patenting mother earth
  2. Bullying law suits (tracking down farmers who might have saved seeds for replanting, then sued them)
  3. Sterilizing Mother Earth (rights to a new technology that sterilizes seeds, as well as any other seeds contaminated by them)
  4. Bullying the media (Monsanto’s influence has long managed to kill stories unfavorable to the company)
  5. Blatantly influencing FDA and USDA policy ( appointment of Monsanto’s former Vice President for Public Policy as Special Assistant to the FDA Commissioner - for Food Safety)
What are GMO's (genetically modified organisms)?

~ is an organism whose genome has beenaltered by the techniques of genetic engineering so that its DNA contains one or more genes not normallyfound there.


Note : A high percentage of food crops, such ascorn and soybeans, are genetically modified.


Pro's to having GMO's~According to Joshua Duvauchelle in his article on Livestrong he found that-

  1. They are more resistant to insect pests
  2. GMO crops and animals often requires less chemicals, time and tools, and may help to reduce environmental pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil erosion. This can improve the general beauty and health of the environment surrounding farms and contribute to the sustaining of better air and water quality, which can indirectly benefit your personal well-being.
  3. GMO foods have been engineered to be more nutritious in terms of mineral or vitamin content
Con's to having GMO's~
  1. GMO foods can present significant allergy risks to people, according to Brown University. Genetic modification often mixes or adds proteins that weren't indigenous to the original plant or animal, causing new allergic reactions in the human body
  2. Some GMO foods have had antibiotic features built into them to make them immune or resistant to diseases or viruses, according to Iowa State University. When you eat them, these antibiotic markers persist in your body and can make actual antibiotic medications less effective.
  3. A constant risk of GMO foods is that the modified genes of the organisms may escape into the wild. Brown University warns that herbicide-resistant genes from commercial crops may cross into the wild weed population, thus creating "superweeds" that are impossible to kill with herbicides. A related risk is that the escape of genetically enhanced animals and vegetation can create new super-organisms that can out-compete natural animal and plant populations to drive certain species into extinction.
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*Facts*

  • Genetic Engineering- The process of taking genes from one species and inserting them into another species
  • Root- An organ that anchors a plant to its surface and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil
  • Root Hair- Tiny lateral extensions of a root's outer cells that absorbs the water and minerals from the soil
  • Stem- Connects a plant's roots to its leaves and flowers; it provides the structural support for the plant
  • Xylem- Part of a stem that transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and flowers
  • Phloem- Part of the stem that carriers food made in the leaves though the stems to the roots and other parts of the plant
  • Leaf- A broad or long, flat structure attached to the stems by a stalk; it is the place in the plant where photosynthesis occurs and food molecules are made
  • Flower- Part of a plant that is used for sexual reproduction; it produces seeds and fruit
  • Sepal- The outer protective cover of a flower bud
  • Petal- Showiest part of the flower
  • Stamen- The male part of the flower
  • Seed- A plant embryo surrounded by a protective coating
  • Endosperm- Cells that surround a plant embryo and form the bulk of the seed
  • Seed Coat- A protective cover over the seed that keeps it from drying out
  • Fruit- Any structure that develops from a flower's ovary
  • Photosynthesis- A process that plants use to capture solar energy and then use it to make sugar
  • Light Reaction- The first stage of photosynthesis in which solar energy is captured
  • Chlorophyll- A green pigment used by plants in photosynthesis
  • Calvin Cycle- The second stage of photosynthesis in which solar energy captured from light reactions is used to make sugar
  • Carbon Fixation- The attachment of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to another carbon-containing compound
  • Chloroplast- An organelle in a photosynthetic cell in which photosynthesis takes place
  • Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)- An organism who's genetic material has been altered
  • Glyphosate- A broad-spectrum herbicide; it is the active ingredient in Roundup
  • Cloning- The process of isolating and copying a gene
  • Transformation- The process by which a cell takes in and uses DNA form a foreign source
  • Bioleaching- The action of bacteria that have been genetically engineered to produce enzymes that dissolve metals from their ores, making the metal easier to extract
  • Genome- All of an organism's DNA and every gene required to make it all work
  • Vertical Gene Transfer- The transference of genes from parents to offspring
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer- The transference of genes between individuals of the same generations, and often between individuals of different species
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**Flower Power...**

To get a further understanding of the anatomy of plants and flowers you can watch these short clips.


Morphology Of Flowering Plants

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzK304kozF8

Fertilization
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LlEEPb2glY

Works Cited