I have Psoriasis, not cooties
3 Sources from Article Databases
1) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=db5bbf1b-c414-4844-ac57-bf628543d8d8%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=CD005028&db=chh
2) PubMed. Managing Patients with Psoriatic Disease: The Diagnosis and Pharmacologic Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with Psoriasis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3958815/
3) ProQuest Research Library. Role of Depression in Quality of Life for Patients with Psoriasis. http://search.proquest.com/pqrl/docview/275058340/FF390EAB1BFA4F3CPQ/17?accountid=12915
Word Analysis of Five Medical Terms
(R) cutane= skin
(S) -ous= pertaining to
Definition: Pertaining to the skin
(R) arthr= joint
(S) -itis= inflammation
Definition: Inflammation of a joint that can result from various diseases (such as an attack on the joints by the body itself or an autoimmune disease)
(P) epi= upon, over, above
(R) derm= skin
(S) -al= pertaining to
Definition: Pertaining to the outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin covering the dermis
(CF) dermat/o= skin
(S) -logy= study of
(S) -ist= one who specializes
Definition: One who specializes in the study of diseases of the skin.
(CF) cortic/o= cortex
(R) ster= solid
(S) -oid= resemble, like, similar
Definition: A class of steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex or made synthetically
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a prevalence between 1-2% of the U.S population. Psoriasis may be localized or widespread, and any area of the body may be affected. The most common areas are the knees, elbows, lower back, and scalp. There are various degrees of classifications for psoriasis either mild, moderate, or severe. However, these classifications are very difficult to precisely define. The most common type of psoriasis is called chronic plaque psoriasis and is classified by redness, thickness, and scaling. The way psoriasis develops is very complicated. It is influenced by many factors such as genetic changes, local trauma, infections, certain drugs, sunlight, smoking, etc. The white-red flaky skin cells are called skin lesions. These lesions are characterized by multiplying too quickly (also known as epidermal hyperproliferation), cells nor maturing normally (also known as abnormal keratinocyte), and the presence of cells that cause inflammation (also known as lymphocyte inflammatory infiltrate) (Mason 2013).
In history, there has not always been in depth research about psoriasis. Originally, there were at least nine chromosomal psoriasis susceptibility loci, the specific location of a gene on a chromosome, that were identified. Since then, a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies has identified 15 new susceptibility loci for psoriasis. This brings the total number to 36 loci associated with psoriasis. Additionally to the research about psoriasis associating with genes on a chromosome, new treatments over the years have been developed. The most common treatments for psoriasis includes topical corticosteroids. These are easy to apply, cosmetically acceptable, do not stain skin, and rarely cause irritation. Four different potencies are available in corticosteroids from mild to very potent. Vitamin D analogues are also common and are not known to cause skin atrophy. However, around 25% of people are reported to have little to no response to topical vitamin D analogues. Therefore, new treatments have been greatly researched and tested on the various different types of psoriasis (Mason 2013).
Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by psoriasis, synovitis, and other extra-articular manifestations. Up to 40% of patients will develop psoriatic psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis accompanies the cutaneous manifestations of psoriasis in 5-30% of cases (Mason 2013). This type of psoriasis can lead to significant morbidity, which is the reason dermatologists and other specialists have been searching for new treatments. Traditional treatments are similar to regular psoriasis such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate (used for severe psoriasis), sulfasalazine, leflunomide, and TNF agents. Now, new and future treatments are surpassing the traditional treatments. Apremilast has demonstrated great efficacy in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic psoriasis. A 20-30mg tablet of Apremilast twice daily reduced the severity of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis over a time of 24 weeks. Other new treatments include JAK inhibitors and PDE4 inhibition (Mease 2014).
Until defined as a type of disease, psoriasis used to be thought as a variant of leprosy and regarded as contagious. One can infer that psoriasis can lead to social isolation and fear of people's reactions, which adversely affects their quality of daily life (Mason 2013). Thus, it has been proposed that depression plays a role in how Psoriasis affects quality of life. Like stated above, the severity of psoriasis is described by the intensity of the psoriatic lesions. However, from the patient's perspective, the impact psoriasis has on their everyday physical, social, and psychological or emotional functioning is the most important. It has been indicated by research that psoriasis has an impact on health-related quality of life that is comparable to depression. Research has found that depression affects HRQL of patients suffering from psoriasis at least as much as the clinical severity of their psoriasis. This is often related to their dissatisfaction with psoriasis treatment (Schmitt 2007). Therefore, psoriasis is a disease that affects more than just the outward appearance of the skin. It is important that those who are not informed about psoriasis be made aware and educated on what this autoimmune disease is and how it can affect all types of people.
Most common Locations for Psoriasis
Mason, Anne R. "Topical Treatments For Chronic Plaque Psoriasis." Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews 4 (2013): Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
Mease, Philip J., and April W. Armstrong. “Managing Patients with Psoriatic Disease: The Diagnosis and Pharmacologic Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with Psoriasis.” Drugs 74.4 (2014): 423–441. PMC. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
Schmitt, J. M., & Ford, D. E. (2007). Role of depression in quality of life for patients with psoriasis. Dermatology, 215(1), 17-27. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.unwsp.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/275058340?accountid=12915