The Sun

By Samantha Kline

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The core is the very inside of the sun and is where it gathers all of its energy.Made of nickel, liquid and solid iron, the temperature of this layer is about 15 600 000° K(alvin). Extreme temperatures in this layer cause atoms to collide which makes them fall apart, leading to fusion of the hydrogen atoms. The energy produced by this fusion fuels the sun, allowing the sun to provide light and heat for us on Earth.
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The temperature of this layer is 7 million K(alvin). The photons that were being made in the core are so incredibly fast that they bounce off of each other as they are making their way to the radiation zone. Due to the constant and inevitable collisions, it takes 100, 000 years for photons to make their way through the radiation zone.
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The outer-most layer of the solar interior, the convective zone, has an average temperature is about 2 million° K(alvin.) In this zone the transfer of energy occurs much faster than the radiation zone. It is a lot quickly because of the cooler temperature which allows the hot gasses coming from the inner layers are caused to grow in size and ascend to the top of the convection zone. Once the energy reaches this point it is transferred into the next layer. While the gases are rising their temperature begins to drop, which causes them to lower back into the radiation zone. They then repeat the process and create convection currents.
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Often referred to as the sun's surface, this layer maintains an average temperature of 5800° K(alvin). This layer is also where the Sun’s light is emitted from. It is the only layer that we can see from Earth, it is also the surface where sunspots appear.
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Being the layer above the photosphere, the cromosphere can only be seen during a solar eclipse. Maintaining a temperature of 4500° K(alvin), this layer makes solar flares and prominences.
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Extending over a millions kilometers from the sun, the corona is the area surrounding the sun. With its temperature reaching up to 2 million° K(alvin), the corona releases X-ray radiation. Just like the chromosphere, the corona can only be seen during a solar eclipse.
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Seen on the photosphere, sunspots show up as dark spots due to them being cooler than the surrounding region. Sunspots are only temporary, after a bit they return to the solar interior. Occasionally, a sunspot becomes so big that at sunrise or sunset, it can be seen by the naked eye.
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Occurring when there is an explosion on the sun, solar flares take place when stored energy in twisted magnetic fields is suddenly released. The are three categories to define solar flares are x-class flares, m- class flares and c-class flares. X-class flares are rather large and can result in worldwide radio black outs and extreme radiation storms. M-class flares are medium sized and sometimes cause minor radio blackouts in Earth's polar regions. The smallest of the three, C-class flares usually result in very few noticeable effects on Earth.

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Solar prominences or filaments are arcs of gas that erupt from the surface of the Sun. Theycan loop hundreds of thousands of miles into space. Prominences are held above the Sun's surface by strong magnetic fields and can last for several months. At some time in their existence, most will erupt, spewing a plethora of solar material into space.
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The aurora borealis, a.k.a. the Northern Lights, are the result of collisions between gaseous particles in the Earth's atmosphere with charged particles released from the sun's atmosphere. Variations in color are the result of the various types of gas particles that are colliding. The most common auroral color, a pale yellowish-green, is produced by oxygen molecules located around 60 miles above the earth. Rare, all-red auroras are created by high-altitude oxygen, at heights of up to 200 miles. Nitrogen produces blue or purplish-red auroras.