Chemists' guide to Stoich

by Justin Sims

Step 1: IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF REACTION/ BALANCING EQUATIONS/ IUPAC NAMES

First you have your given reaction. For this tutorial I will be using calcium carbonate and nitric acid (has nothing to do with the project I desperately need to finish last minute to pass for the semester). There are FIVE types of reactions that you children need to learn before we identify which one the given is. There is SYNTHESIS, DECOMPOSITION,SINGLE REPLACEMENT, DOUBLE REPLACEMENT, and the most awesome sounding yet boring when doing equations, COMBUSTION.

SYNTHESIS: putting two or more substances together to form one

DECOMPOSITION: breaking one substance into two or more other substances

SINGLE REPLACEMENT: a free element replaces a similar element in a compound

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT: two elements in two compounds switch places

COMBUSTION: the burning of a substance with oxygen. the products of the combustion of a hydrocarbon (hydrogen and oxygen) are always carbon dioxide and water.


Okay now that we all know what the FIVE reactions are we can find out what type the given reaction was.


CALCIUM CARBONATE AND NITRIC ACID


the two are obviously two compounds with the similar elements within the compounds being Calcium and Hydrogen so this is a double replacement reaction and also an acid base reaction which we have yet to learn...( I should get props for doing this without even learning the content yet *inserts smiley emoji*)



NEXT IS BALANCING THE EQUATION. To write the equation properly you have to find the charges of the two elements within the compounds and figure out how many subscripts are on each element. Then you have to balance the equation on both sides by using coefficients. It all comes out to look like the below equation


Ca(Co3) (s) +2HNO3 (aq) ---->Ca(NO3)2 (s)+CO2(g)+ H2O(l)


FINALLY FOR THIS PORTION IS THE IUPAC NAME FOR THE REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS

(basically what the name of the reactants and products are.) It comes out as the below.


CALCIUM CARBONATE AND NITRIC ACID react to make CALCIUM NITRATE, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND WATER



END OF PART ONE.