Equine

By: Morgan Waldron

What is Equine?

Equine science is otherwise known as horse science. Horses are mammals of the Equidae family. Other animals in the Equidae family include Zebras, Mules, and Donkeys. It is estimated that there are around 750 million horses in the world divided into 350 different breeds.

Terms

Foaling

The Parturition term for horse birth.


A mare's gestation period generally lasts for 340 days

Where did they come from?

Horses first began to interact with the human culture at around 30,000 BC, as depicted from ancient cave paintings, however then, horses were hunted instead for their meat and their skins. Horses are thought to have become domesticated near central Asia around 3000 BC, but they were never used for draft work till close to 2500 BC, where they were assigned the task of pulling wagons, carriages, carts, and chariots. Horses have evolved to fit the needs of our ever growing society, starting as a food source to entertainment and sport.
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Uses

Classification

Physical Characteristics

Eyes

  • Horses have the largest eyes of any land animals.
  • Their eyes are located near the side of their heads, enabling then to see almost directly behind them.
  • Horses have extremely well night vision.
  • They also have limited color vision, for example horses can distinguish between red and blue but not between green and gray.

Mouth

  • Horses have powerful teeth and jaws to grind down and break down plant fibers.
  • Their teeth grow continuously as the surfaces wear down.
  • Male horses typically have 40 teeth while females only have 36.

Legs

  • Horses are efficient runners due to their long, light legs.
  • They have hoofs which protect the toe tip of the leg.
  • A horses foot also has a sole which includes a rubbery, V-shaped structure called the frog, which helps absorb the impact of the foot against the ground.

Ears

  • The base of a horse's ear is very flexible.
  • They are able to swivel their ears to pinpoint a sound in front or behind them.
  • Horses can even display emotions through their ears.

Breeds

American Quarter Horse

They are the most common horse breed. Quarter Horses are heavily muscled and excel at sprinting short distances. They are typically a brownish red, but some variations can include black, gray, and even shades of tan. It was created in the 1600's by the English colonies in America.
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Paint Horse

Paint horses are generally brown, black, tan, or gray, with irregular scattered markings. They possess muscular firm necks and backs, with strong legs. Paint horses are are also known for there intelligence. They are thought to have originated in native american tribes where they were then brought to Spain.
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Clydesdale Horse

Clydesdale horses are usually about 6 feet tall. They are also known for their feather,the long hair above there hoofs. Theses horses have a small head but a heavy bone structure so they can weight up to 2,000 lbs. They are typically various shades of brown and black along with a white underbelly and feather. Clydesdale's were first used in the 17th century as a war horse but soon after were breed into drat work, because of their strong build.
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Arabian Horse

Arabian horses are known for their incredible energy. They were first originated in the middle east, throughout the deserts as means of transportation, due to there large air capacity and endurance. This breed has compact bodies and powerful hindquarters, suggestion speed and strength. They possess nearly every color and variation along with white socks, and some facial markings.
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Thoroughbred

Thoroughbred horses are most vastly used in horse racing, as a result of their agility, speed, and spirit. This breed has a lean body and long legs in addition to a long, light neck. They typically are brown, black, white, or gray. They have ancestors related to the Arabian horse, but were first discovered in the late 1600's in Britain.
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Ponies

Ponies, or Miniature Horses are the smallest of the horse breeds. They were originally used for draft work and are therefore heavy bodied, with thick coats and manes. There are actually many different types of ponies. They are thought to have originated around the time of the ice age.
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Palomino Horse

Palomino Horses are actually a color breed, meaning they are bred for the color of their coat. So therefore various breeds of horses can be Palominos including Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, American Saddle Horses,Arabians, Morgans and Tennessee Walking Horses. Its coat is gold in color, while its mane and tail are white. In addition the breed must have brown, black, or hazel eyes.
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Pinto Horse

Pintos are also a color breed, and are viewed in many types of breeds. When the horses coat is darker and closer to black they are referred to as Piebald. But any other lighter color is called a Skewbald. The Pinto is actually closely related with a Paint however a Pinto is bred for color while a Paint is bred as a separate breed. These horses like a Paint however are have multicolored patches. They are thought to have been introduced to America, from European countries, where they were then used by Native Americans
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English Riding

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  • English style horses tend to be taller and many are leggy, aiding their ability to travel over long distances at a variety of speeds as well as jump over a variety of obstacles.
  • English Riders will ride with a rein in each hand and post the trot.
  • English attire includes a traditional style helmet, a fitted jacket, shirt, breeches and tall boots.

Western Riding

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  • Western horses tend to be compact and capable of steady travel all day with small bursts of speed to chase stray cattle.
  • Western riders will learn how to neck rein.
  • Attire includes the traditional western hat, a comfortable shirt, jeans, and western style boots.

Tack

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Requirements of Owning a horse

  • Horses must be fed with special hay and given water twice daily.
  • They must also be exercised on a daily basis.
  • Horses have to be checked for signs of illness regularly.
  • Their stall must be mucked and new hay down.
  • The horse must be washed and brushed in order to stay clean.
  • Their hoofs must also be cleaned daily.
  • Tack must be bought to ride them, along with any other supplies and tack.
  • Vet visits and vaccination must be made in order to keep the horse health.
  • In order for a horse to learn they need lessons and training.

FUN FACTS!!!!!!!

  • Horses live approximately 30-45 years
  • Horses sleep only 3-4 hours a day standing up usually in 10-15 minute time slots
  • A horses head weights about 12 lbs while its heart weights close to 10 lbs
  • A full grown horse will typically eat between 16-26 lbs a day and drink 10-12 gallons of water a day
  • Within a couple hours of being born a foal can stand and walk

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