Civil War!

Battle of Galveston

Soon after the fall of Galveston, John Magruder starting organizing for the recapture of Galveston as it was one of the most important ports of Texas (1862). Magruder attacked on New Years day (January 1st, 1863) and Joseph Cook, the Union commander, failed to take control of the dock because of the short ladders. Magruder’s artillery managed to sink one boat and killed about 150 men.

Battle of Sabine Pass

Fort Griffin, Confederate Fort. Contained 6 cannons, that would be used to sink two of the four Union ships with very accurate shots. On the 4th shot of one of these cannons, the Sanchem’s boiler was shot. This resulted in it exploding, killing and wounding many crew members as well as leaving the ship without power. Another Union ship,called The Clifton, also had its boiler shot. The boiler explosion sent smoke throughout the ship causing men to abandon ship. Richard Dowling was the leader (Lt.).

Battle of Palmito Ranch

Very last land battle of the Civil War. Confederates did not know that General Lee had surrendered and ironically won this fight. May 12-13 1865. Confederates led by John “Rip” Ford. Interesting fact: John Ford was nicknamed Rip for saying rest in peace after every soldier's name on the casualty list. Anyways, When the commander, Theodore Barret, ordered retreat, a part of his army was left unsupported. Ford seized the opportunity and fired on the unguarded army. The men scattered and ran away, constantly under fire from Ford’s cavalry.


"Battle of Galveston." Battle of Galveston. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.

" ." Battle of Palmetto Ranch. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"SABINE PASS, BATTLE OF." BARR, ALWYN. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

Alwyn Barr, "GALVESTON, BATTLE OF," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed April 22, 2014. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Modified on March 4, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

Problems and Tensions in Wartime

One of the main problems for the Confederacy was the Union was blocking all trade routes through ship (through the Gulf of Mexico.) Since the Confederacy was not allowed to trade, they were unable to get a large amount of supplies through other countries.
Though Texas was not utterly destroyed, it faced other problems. Texans had a shortage of supplies and tensions were still hot with former opponents. Texas, despite not having much destruction, was having a hard time living.
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Causes of the Civil War - Civil War Causes - Causes of the American Civil War." Military History. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

"Texas Civil War Map of The Battles." American Civil War. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Wartime Economy: Economics and Inflation

During the war, Texas maintained their growth of cotton and cattle, but Texas' overall agriculture was affected massively. Cotton was Texas' main cash crop, but since the Union had a blockade on coast of Texas, Texas was unable to sell their cotton. Farmers, in order to adapt to the wartime environment, cut down on the growth of cotton and began growing more corn and wheat as the need for a food crop grew. Since war is a very costly event, taxes in the Confederacy rose in order to support the war. Money in the Confederacy lost its value. For example, the price of a horse rose to a couple hundred dollars in only 5 years.
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"Celebrating Texas, Textbook"

"Lessons from the Failed Forecasts of Inflation since the Crash." Fabius Maximus. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Women & The War Effort

Since the majority of men were out fighting in the war, the women were left to do the men work. Since Texas was very agricultural, women were left to tend to farms, sometimes even large plantations, or even ranches where the women had to raise cattle. Some women who didn't have to tend to cattle or raise corn and wheat, provided education and medical aid to soldiers. Women could have been considered as the suppliers as they sent food and bandages to the soldiers in the battle.
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"Civil War Women." Civil War Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Celebrating Texas, Textbook

Hardships and Substitute items

The Union blockade cut a lot of items short and made them very scarce. Medicines were bring sent to soldiers instead of towns. Since supplies were scarce, citizens began to find substitutes. People roasted acorns and used this for a drink that was similar coffee. Honey was used as sugar and women homespun clothes. Herbs took the place of medicines. The people of Texas had to adapt to the shortage of supplies.
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ACORN Coffee." N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Celebrating Texas, Textbook

Unionism and Conscientious Objectors

Conscientious objectors are citizens who would not fight in the war due to religious conflicts. They would be treated harshly. This happened more in the south (Texas) and would provide medical help or work in salt mines in substitute.
Unionism objectors were opposed by Texan nationalist, confederates, and secessionist. They were treated harshly. An example of their harsh treatment, 40 suspected Unionist were hung in the Great Hanging at Gainesville. Unionist in Texas had one main problem-Slavery. Others thought that slavery was the "backbone" of Texas because they needed to gain a profit. Unionist in Texas wanted the United States to stay together and not break apart.
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"Conscientious Objectors In The Civil War." Conscientious Objectors In The Civil War. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014.